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Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology. Trait anxiety and impoverished prefrontal control of attention. Nature Neuroscience. Neural processing of fearful faces: Effects of anxiety are gated by perceptual capacity limitations.

Cerebral Cortex. Critical Reviews in Toxicology. Human amygdala activity during the expression of fear responses. Behavioral Neuroscience. Does the letter number sequencing task measure anything more than digit span? Anxiety, processing efficiency, and cognitive performance: New developments from attentional control theory. European Psychologist.

Working memory performance after acute exposure to the cold pressor stress in healthy volunteers. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory. Working memory, short-term memory, and general fluid intelligence: a latent-variable approach. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. Anxiety and performance: The processing efficiency theory. Cognition and Emotion. Anxiety and cognitive performance: Attentional control theory. Trait anxiety, visuospatial processing, and working memory.

Anxiety and cognitive efficiency: Differential modulation of transient and sustained neural activity during a working memory task. Restriction of working memory capacity during worry. Journal of Abnormal Psychology.

Hayes Andrew F, Matthes J. Behavior Research Methods. Anxiety-linked task performance: Dissociating the influence of restricted working memory capacity and increased investment of effort. A meta-analytic review of the effects of acute cortisol administration on human memory. Can we improve the clinical assessment of working memory? Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology. The Journal of Pain. Relationship between relaxation by guided imagery and performance of working memory.

Psychological Reports. Accuracy of Reporting of Menstrual Cycle Length. American Journal of Epidemiology. Effects of neonatal amygdala lesions on fear learning, conditioned inhibition, and extinction in adult macaques.

Cognitive impairment in musculoskeletal pain patients. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine. The structural integrity of an amygdala-prefrontal pathway predicts trait anxiety. The Journal of Neuroscience. Salivary cortisol in psychoneuroendocrine research: Recent developments and applications. Applied Cognitive Psychology.

Worry in imagery and verbal form: Effect on residual working memory capacity. Behaviour research and therapy. Effects of anxiety on analogical reasoning: A test of three theoretical models. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Neuropsychological deficits associated with complex regional pain syndrome. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society. Stress influences the level of negative affectivity after forehead cold pressor pain. Working memory is more sensitive than declarative memory to the acute effects of corticosteroids: A dose-response study in humans.

Gender differences in anxiety disorders: Prevalence, course of illness, comorbidity and burden of illness. Journal of Psychiatric Research. The short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire. Cognitive Psychology. Hydrocortisone reduces emotional distracter interference in working memory. Quality of life in the anxiety disorders: A meta-analytic review.

Clinical Psychology Review. The neurophysiological bases of emotion: An fMRI study of the affective circumplex using emotion-denoting words. Human Brain Mapping. Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Addressing moderated mediation hypotheses: Theory, methods, and prescriptions. Multivariate Behavioral Research. Acute psychological stress reduces working memory-related activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

Biological Psychiatry. The effects of exposure to an acute naturalistic stressor on working memory, state anxiety and salivary cortisol concentrations. Mediation analysis in social psychology: Current practices and new recommendations.

Social and Personality Psychology Compass. Cold pressor stress impairs performance on working memory tasks requiring executive functions in healthy young men. The burden of anxiety disorders on the family. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. A comparison of laboratory and clinical working memory tests and their prediction of fluid intelligence. Mediation in experimental and nonexperimental studies: New procedures and recommendations.

Psychological Methods. The effect of trait anxiety and situational stress on working memory capacity. Journal of Research in Personality. The effects of glucocorticoids on the inhibition of emotional information: A dose-response study. Biological Psychology. Affective and anxiety disorders and their relationship with chronic physical conditions in Australia: Findings of the National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing.

Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. San Antonio: Psychological Corporation; Cortisol differentially affects memory in young and elderly men. The relationship between stress induced cortisol levels and memory differs between men and women. Enhanced effects of cortisol administration on episodic and working memory in aging veterans with PTSD.

Reconsidering Baron and Kenny: Myths and truths about mediation analysis. Journal of Consumer Research. Hypotheses 2. Discussion Acknowledgements References. Written by Will. The first half is great, although Anna Odells personality and shaky acting makes even me want to bully her. The second half is just a waste of time, with some kind of pseudo-documentary, "The Office" style.

The film more or less only consists of a camera shooting close-ups of people so it is not a movie for those expecting any grand scenes or brilliant camera technique. Anna Odells acting is crap so why she won a price for best actress is astounding. The guys playing the bullies, though, has acting skills: They were really good.

It is a pity that most Movie Awards has one price for "Best male" and one for "Best female". Stupid really. Because if the two best actors are of the same sex then one of the prices, that should rightfully have gone to them, goes to someone else with the right sex , even if this someone else is crap. As in this case. Sign In. Keep track of everything you watch; tell your friends. Full Cast and Crew. Release Dates. Official Sites. Company Credits. Technical Specs. Plot Summary. Plot Keywords.

Parents Guide. External Sites. User Reviews. User Ratings. External Reviews. Metacritic Reviews. Photo Gallery. Trailers and Videos. It is to the effect [] that when Conchobar and his party, including his charioteer Dechtere, were overtaken in the fairy neighbourhood of the Brugh of the Boyne, they came across a solitary new house there, the owner of which bade them enter. They hesitated, both on account of the smallness of the building and of its probable lack of provisions and sleeping accommodation: in, however, they went, and they had not been there long when they suddenly [] espied a kitchen door.

In due time they had food and drink of the most varied and luxurious description brought them, and they had never, they thought, found themselves better served. But when they had become merry and rather more, their host informed them that his wife in the kitchen was overtaken by the pains of childbirth. Dechtere went to her, and a boy was born, at the same time that a mare at the door gave birth to two colts. In the morning the Ultonian party found themselves alone in the open air with their horses, the baby and the two colts.

The colts were kept as a present for the baby, and the latter was reared by Dechtere for some time; but one day the child fell ill and died, to her profound grief; but for the next avatar of Lug, Dechtere found herself chosen to be the mother, as she was informed by him in a dream, when he took the opportunity also of charging her to keep the colts for the boy that was to be born and to be called Setanta.

Herein Irish would seem to have antiquity on its side, since the chariot and chargers associated with the Irish Sun-god find their counterpart in those of Helios in Greek mythology.

Various allusions have been made to Diarmait, and now something more must be said of him, especially as both his parentage and his death have an important bearing on the view here taken of the Sun-god. Diarmait was the son of Corc and grandson of Duben, so the story of Corc has now to be briefly resumed where we left it off p.

It will be remembered that after Corc had been completely purged of the paganism of his nature when he was a year old, he was taken back to Erinn: the next thing we read of him is that, years later, his father Cairbre, as provincial king, sent him as a hostage to Cormac mac Airt king of Erinn, who had his court at Tara.

Cormac entrusted Corc to a mighty warrior called Aengus of the poisoned Spear, and Aengus treated him as his foster-son, and he was with him on the occasion of a hurried visit by Aengus to Tara to avenge an insult to his family. After doing this, Aengus and Corc escaped, and the latter freed himself from his position as a hostage.

When Corc saw the island where he had been reared, he asked his companions to stay with him there; but his story goes no further, except to state in a general way that he remained in the south of Ireland. His mother's name, as already mentioned p.

It is clear at a glance that Duben's twin sons Corc and Cormac are to be compared with Arianrhod's children Dylan and Lleu, and that they may be taken to represent darkness and light respectively. Of Cormac, however, next to nothing is said, but we are left to suppose that he was handed over at his birth to the nobles of Munster to be burnt.

But Corc, in whom the interest of the story centres, clearly lends himself to a comparison with Dylan; for as Dylan hies away to the sea as soon as he is christened, so Corc is taken as soon as he is born to a little island in the Atlantic, and in the course of his later wanderings he welcomes the sight of it once more and desires to remain on it.

Further, the identification here suggested of Corc with darkness has in its favour the important evidence of the story how his brother deprived him of one of his ears. That seems in some way to typify the action of the sun on the dark shades of night, and it is impossible to avoid seeing that it refers to the same attribute of the dark being as that which gave Ailill Aulom, or A.

Bare-ear, his surname p. Further, Corc Duibne may be shown, in a round-about way, to have had another name, Donn , 'brown or dark. But the accounts given of his parentage vary, some calling his father Corc, and some others, not to say most others, being wont to give him the name Donn; [] but there was probably no contradiction between them, as his name may be inferred to have been in full Corc Donn, or the Brown Cropped One. That the cropped king of darkness should be the father of the solar hero Diarmait is in no way surprising, as it amounts probably to not much more than another way of saying that the darkness of night precedes the light of day; and the way in which his mother is described suggests a dawn goddess associated with the Liffey; for she is called Crochnuit, daughter of Currach Life , that is to say, of the Plain of the Liffey, the unenclosed portion of which is now known as the Curragh of Kildare.

It would take up too much of our space to examine the many adventures associated with Diarmait's name: I can only give you here the story of Diarmait's death as briefly as possible. When years had elapsed, the latter's wife and daughter had a feast made for Finn and his followers, and it happened whilst Finn was their guest that Diarmait was one night waked by the voice of a hound.

Presently Diarmait heard the hound's voice again, and he would have gone out after the dog, but his wife's advice prevailed. He fell into a deep sleep, but by and by he was waked by the voice of the dog again, and, as it was now daylight, he went out lightly armed and accompanied by his favourite hound. He walked on and on until he reached the top of Benn Gulbain, a mountain now called Benbulbin, in the county of Sligo. There he found before him Finn all alone, and, without greeting him, he asked him if it was he that was hunting, whereupon Finn answered that it was not, but that a party of his men who had gone before him were there, and that one of the dogs had come across the track of a wild boar.

He went on to say that it was the Boar of Benn Gulbain, and that it was idle for them to hunt him, as they had tried it often before: in fact, the beast had killed, he said, half a hundred of their number that very morning. Moreover, he added, that the boar was coming up the hill towards where they now were; the huntsmen were fleeing before him, and he thought it advisable for them both to quit the knoll where they were standing. But Diarmait would not go, and Finn told him he had better, as he was under gessa or prohibitions not to hunt a swine.

He said he had never heard that before, and he wished Finn to explain. As a matter of favour and considerable pay, it was conceded to Roc that his boy, though a plebeian, should be reared as the playfellow and foster-brother of Diarmait. But one evening, when Aengus had Diarmait's father and Finn staying at his house, the former's jealousy was much roused by the attention which he saw some of Aengus' men paying to the son of the steward; presently two of Finn's dogs fell to fighting, when the weaker members of the household suddenly rushed away, and the steward's son ran for shelter between the knees of Diarmait's father, who gave him a squeeze which killed him.

The steward's grief was great, and he would take no eric but that Diarmait should be placed between his knees; but being unable to get that, and having learnt something of his master's art, he fetched a magic wand, and with it struck the corpse of his child, so that it was transformed into a grey cropped pig. Before the boar had had time to rush out, Roc pronounced an incantation over him, according to which he was to have the same span of life as Diarmait, who was, however, to fall by him.

It was then, as Diarmait was now told, that the gessa were laid on him by his foster-father Aengus that he was never to hunt a pig. Finn, therefore, advised Diarmait again to move away from the knoll where they stood talking together, but he was not to be frightened. So Finn left him, and refused even to leave him his dog Bran to encourage Diarmait's. In either case, Finn and his men had arrived on the spot before Diarmait was gone; and Finn is described bitterly saying to him that he was only sorry that the women of Erinn were not there to see the pale face of the darling they had so much loved.

But Diarmait asked Finn to fetch him some water, that he might drink from the palms of his hands; for Finn, when he obtained his power of divination, had it also granted him that whosoever drank water from the palms of his hands should at once be cured of all wounds and diseases.

Finn said that Diarmait did not deserve it of him, whereupon Diarmait proved that he did by recalling to Finn's memory the various occasions on which he had rescued Finn from the hands of his enemies.

Then Finn said there was no water to be found there, which Diarmait showed to be untrue, at the same time that he pointed out a spring only nine paces from where he stood. Grainne's grief when she heard of it was no less profound and frantic than that of Aphrodite when her darling Adonis was killed by the boar he was hunting, a parallel which might be followed further.

To return to Finn: he was wily enough to induce Grainne at last to become his wife, and to make use of her to obtain peace from the Sons of Diarmait when he had found that they could not be resisted in arms, and that they had meant to avenge on him their father's death. Lastly, as soon as Aengus, Diarmait's foster-father, became aware of it, he came to fetch his body: that night, he said, was the first since his foster-son was but nine months old that he had not watched over him and protected him against his foes.

He was not prepared for Finn's treachery, as he had made peace between them. Now he carried away Diarmait's body to the Brugh of the Boyne, saying that though he could not call him back to this life, he would put a soul in him, so that he might converse with him daily.

So ends this story, and it is scarcely necessary, after the remarks made on the subject on diverse previous occasions, to say that it all represents the varying fortunes of the struggle between the Sun-hero and his dark antagonist for a goddess of the usual type, who is represented first betrothed to Finn, then eloping with Diarmait, and after his death becoming Finn's wife likewise. It may here be noted as to her name, that Grainne implies some such an early form Grannja , the close relationship of which to that of Grannos of the Apollo Grannus of the Celts of antiquity cannot be mistaken.

But Gwyn's story offers no parallel to Finn's tortuous way of leading Diarmait to meet his death in a hunt; rather are we reminded of Gunther and the hunt he had a hand in planning for the assassination of Sigfried.

So the noble Diarmait, beloved of all, and the grisly Boar were the offspring of one mother: they represent light and darkness. Irish literature speaks of other mythic swine, one of which may be mentioned here: it was a monster sow belonging to Mesroida mac Datho king of Leinster, a prince of the same class as Ailill Aulom and the like. He welcomed all, and killed the great swine to feast them: by this time its stomach alone would have been a load for nine men.

No sooner was the banquet ready than the question arose who was to carve the colossal carcase; and they proceeded to decide it according to the merits of the men of Ulster and Connaught in the raids which each had made into the other's country. It took place on the last night of the year or on the morning following. Now as the Celts were in the habit formerly of counting winters, and of giving precedence in their reckoning to night and winter over day and summer p.

Here a stile takes the place of the cross-roads, which are apt to figure in English folk-lore; and we have it again in the corresponding but less specific rhyme from my native part of north Cardiganshire, which runs thus:. Add to this that the Scotch Gaels have formed from the word Samhain , 'All-hallows,' a derivative Samhanach , meaning an All-hallows demon or goblin, supposed to steal babies as well as perpetrate other atrocities then.

It had been fixed upon as the time of all others when the Sun-god, whose power had been gradually falling off since the great feast associated with him on the first of August, succumbed to his enemies the powers of darkness and winter. On the Celtic side, the latter association recalls the Irish mythic magician Mog Ruith and his daughter Tlachtga p.

It lasted several days, and was partly devoted to civic business, such as the adopting of new members into the tribes, and more especially to the registering, subject to close scrutiny, of the names of all the legitimate children born during the year then ending. When the sacrificing and feasting on the last day were over, the children's fathers and other representatives of the tribes went forth in a procession, after lighting their torches at the state hearth.

The nearest Celtic parallel is to be found in the racing away from the bonfires in Wales and the distribution of fresh fire in Ireland; but it is to be added that the Samhain feast in the latter country was, like the Greek Apaturia, partly devoted to business, namely, to a public scrutiny of the trophies which the Irish braves claimed to have won during the year then ending; otherwise the feast, which occupied, not only Samain or the first of November, but also the three days before and the three days after it, was given up to the usual games and the fair, to pleasure and amusement, to eating and banqueting.

The parallel in other respects between the great festival of the Greeks and the feasts held at the same date in all Celtic lands pp. So one has to be content with an approximation in the Athenian Thargelia, centring on the sixth day of the month of Thargelion. Among the peculiar rites that characterized it was the leading about of two adult persons, as it were scapegoats, excepting that at the end they were sacrificed and burnt, so that their ashes might be dispersed.

With this may be compared Cormac's account of the ancient Beltaine, when he says that it was so called from two fires which the druids of Erinn used to make with great incantations; and cattle, he adds, used to be brought to those fires and driven between them as a safeguard against the diseases of the year.

The regretable brevity of Cormac is made less serious by what is known of the practices connected with the First of May in Scotland; since we clearly learn from them how one man originally became a victim for his companions, and how the selection was made: they did not choose him for his ugliness, as the ancient Greeks seem to have done.

Lastly, a year which was common to Celts with Greeks is not unlikely to have once been common to them with some or all of the other branches of the Aryan family. After this digression, I must now return to Diarmait and Corc, since the remarks already made on them would be incomplete without devoting some little space to the name of the latter's mother. It is given in the Book of the Dun [] as Duibind in the accusative, which might, as nd and nn have in that manuscript much the same value, be written Duibinn , were it not more probable that it ought to be corrected into Duibin , [] as the genitive there given is Duibni , more normally written Duibne , in modern spelling Duibhne.

This helps to fix the declension of the name in Old Irish, and we may treat it as nom. Duben , gen. But the descendants of Duben were at one time much more widely spread, and the island of Valentia is found called Dairbhre of the Ui Duibne, [] or the D. However, the survival of the name Corco Duibne as Corcaguinny , [] allows us to infer that the traditional descent from an ancestress Duben continued more vigorously accredited on the Dingle peninsula than anywhere else, and it so happens that this can be corroborated in a remarkable manner; for the barony of Corcaguinny is richer in Ogam inscriptions probably than any other Irish district of the same area.

Two of them are of special interest to us here, as they seem to refer to the mythic ancestress. Mocco Dovvinias was probably the standing designation of the head of the clan to which Mac Erp belonged, and with it may be compared the fashion in use now of speaking of the O'Donoghue or the O'Conor Donn, meaning respectively the Descendant of Donchadh and of Conchobar. In any case, the pedigree implied in the inscription is made to end with the distant ancestress whose name in the genitive is given as Dovvinias.

The final sibilant was very precarious even in early Irish, and no trace of it occurs in the other inscription to be mentioned. This latter occurs on a stone in the same neighbourhood, which stands on a small headland near Dunmore Head in a wild situation arguing no lack of sentiment on the part of him who chose the site: the legend is the following:—.

With regard to the divinity of the Irish goddess, the reader may naturally ask, how any one about whom there was such a story as that about Duben and her relations with Cairbre Musc could have been the object of respect, not to say of divine reverence, such as may be inferred to have been hers. Even Lugaid appears to have been once the object of worship: you may take the name Mo-Lugaid as evidence, and note the fact that the ancient centres of Irish paganism, left 'waste without adoration,' are compared to the site of Lugaid's house.

In connection with my attempt to show that Diarmait, Corc and Duben were intimately associated with Kerry, it is worth while to observe that the inhabitants of that part of Ireland were probably among the least purely Celtic and the most thoroughly Ivernian in the island.

Though nothing conspicuously different from the legends of other districts seems to characterize those of Kerry, it is not impossible that a closer examination of them would result in the discovery of non-Celtic traits. That is, perhaps, the light in which one should regard the attribution to Diarmait of a mole, described as a love-spot, on his face, and curly hair on his head of a dusky black colour, [] the Ivernian race being, as it is supposed, itself of a dark complexion.

It is proposed at this point to give you the means of comparing the story of the Sun-god of the Celts with that of Balder. The latter, as given in old Norse literature, is approximately as follows: [] —. Balder was one of the sons of Woden and Frigg: he was the best of the Anses and praised of them all. He was so fair of face and so bright that rays of shining light issued from his body. The whitest of all plants was compared to Balder's brow and known by that name, whence an idea may be formed, says one author, [] of the beauty of his hair and of his body.

He was not only the whitest, the sweetest-spoken and the mildest of all the Anses, but it was a property of his nature that he could not go wrong in his judgments. But once on a time Balder began. The result of their deliberation was, that Woden went down to the nether world to consult a dead sibyl about the dreams that haunted Balder; and Frigg, who dwelt in a house called Fensalir or the Hall of the Fen, sent to make all things swear that they would not hurt her beloved son Balder: the oath was exacted from fire and water, from iron and all metals, from stones and earth, from the trees of the forest, from diseases and poisons, from four-footed beasts and from birds and serpents: the mistletoe alone was deemed by Frigg too young a thing to be asked to swear.

But Loki, the brewer of mischief and the sire of a bestial triad consisting of the Fenri Wolf, the Leviathan of the deep, and Hell the witch of Niflheim or the Home of Fog, was by no means pleased to see that Balder could not be hurt like others; so one day when the Anses were amusing themselves by throwing their spears and arrows at Balder, since they knew they could not hurt him, Loki went, disguised as an old woman, to where Frigg lived in the Hall of the Fen.

When the hag was asked what the Anses were doing, she replied that they were throwing missiles at Balder, and she inquired if it was true that nothing would hurt him. Frigg answered that everything had been bound by oath not to hurt him except the mistletoe.

The Anses were shocked, but they could do nothing, as the spot was a sanctuary or asylum. Frigg, however, asked who would earn her goodwill and love by hastening to Hell to treat with her for the release of Balder.

But first of all the Anses brought Balder's body down to place it in his ship called Ringhorn, which, as it surpassed all other ships in size, they could not move an inch towards the sea. Balder, after Woden had whispered in his ear, was then placed on the funeral pile in his ship, a sight at which the heart of his wife Nanna broke: so her body was placed on the pyre by his: the fire was lit, and Thor hallowed it with his hammer and threw a dwarf into it called Lit.

Moreover, Balder's horse, with all his harness, was burnt with his master, and Woden laid on the pyre his gold ring Draupnir or Dropper, which from that time forth had the peculiarity that every ninth night eight gold rings of the like weight with itself dropped from it. The vengeance inflicted on Loki was very terrible: when he saw how angry the Anses were at what he had done, he fled, and finally sought refuge in the form of a salmon in a waterfall; but the Anses made a net and caught him.

They then took him into a cave, where they left him bound with bonds of iron on three jagged pieces of rock, one under his shoulders, one under his loins, and the third under his knee-joints, while a terrible serpent hangs over his body distilling venom in his face.

Loki's wife stands by with a cup to receive the venom, and when it is full she empties it; but while she is doing that, the venom drips on Loki's face and then he writhes, causing what men call earthquakes; and this goes on till the doom of the gods.

That is one account; but another makes Loki, before his doom, appear among the Anses to bandy words with them, and even to boast to Frigg that he was the cause why Balder no longer rode into the hall. He then left the Anses as he was threatened by Thor, of whom he went in bodily fear. On he rode until he came to the fence of Hell's abode, which his horse cleared at full speed, and on entering the hall he found his brother Balder seated in the place of honour.

He abode with him that night, and in the morning he asked Hell to let him ride home with him to the Anses. He urged her to consider the grief which everybody and everything felt after Balder; to which she replied that she would put it to the test by letting him go if everything animate and inanimate wept for him, and by detaining him if anybody or anything declined to do so. Messengers were at once sent forth to the world to bid all be weep Woden's son out of the power of Hell.

What have I to do with the Son of Man quick or dead? Let Hell keep what she holds. The ogress was suspected of being Loki in disguise; for this happened before his punishment had overtaken him.

But be that as it may, the refusal prevented Balder's return just then. The Anses meet in Ida-plain; they talk of the mighty Earth-serpent, and remember the great decrees and the ancient mysteries of Fimbul-ty. There shall be found in the grass wonderful golden tables, their own in days of yore.

The fields unsown shall yield their increase. All sorrows shall be healed. Balder shall come back. I see a hall brighter than the sun, shingled with gold, standing on Gem-lea. The righteous shall dwell therein and live in bliss for ever. Weyer and P. A comparative exercise for estimating the uncertainty associated with new methods for power performance measurements was coordinated by the International Energy Agency IEA Wind Task One time series dataset from a wind turbine, hub height mast and vertical profiling lidar was provided to calculate the power curve using three different wind speed definitions.

The comparative exercise included three iterations over the course of one year to incrementally harmonize the calculations and assumptions. The exercise showed significant variability among participants reflecting difficulty with the interpretation and application of the informative guidance. It also demonstrated that when using current technology and the available calibration techniques the use of a standalone lidar with a short met mast resulted in a significantly higher uncertainty compared to only using a hub height mast with some measurements of wind shear and wind veer in the lower rotor.

One of the main objectives of the New European Wind Atlas NEWA project is to carry out large scale field experiments at a high spatial and temporal resolution, and provide a significant upgrade to the experimental databases currently available. The two m meteorological towers available at the test site were equipped with balconies, first at 50 m above local ground level, later raised to m.

The purpose of this study is to describe i the new filtering method applied to the data, ii the wind field reconstruction and the iii utilisation of the derived wind fields to examine the imprint of surface heterogeneity on the mean wind flow. Cloud point data from aerial lidar scans were used to accurately derive the terrain and tree height.

The mean wind flow patterns appeared to be heavily influenced by the terrain characteristics at the height of 50 m above ground level.

Precise torque measurement in multi-MW nacelle test benches NTBs is crucial for the efficiency determination of wind turbines. However, because the torque transducers of NTBs are not yet traceable to national standards, their accuracy is not yet known. To rectify this, a calibration procedure was developed for torque M under rotation using a torque transfer standard. The results of measurements performed on an NTB are presented for a validation and adjustment of the method planned.

Different influences on the calibration measurements are discussed, such as static and rotational zero point determination, rotational speed n , and ambient conditions. Damage in electrical components during operation of the drive train of wind turbines can lead to highly dynamic load situations. In particular, power converter components are affected by frequent damage, which leads to highly dynamic torque oscillations.

This test rig allows the drive train of a wind turbine to be intensively investigated so that even the highly dynamic load conditions of a power converter fault could be studied. Among other tests, the fault case of a power converter short circuit was synthetically generated. This paper aims to give an insight into the investigation methodology, test setup and looks into the high speed shaft bearing of the gearbox during this load case in detail.

Measuring on offshore wind turbines is a challenging and cost intensive work especially when aiming for poorly accessible parts of the structure. While it is desirable to replace these measurements by indirect methods uncertainty exists about the necessary assumptions in environmental properties e. This paper presents preliminary results of a measurement campaign of subsoil strains on three operating offshore wind turbines located in the Belgian North Sea.

The measurement data enables to check design assumptions e. Furthermore the dynamic behavior of the structure is analyzed in order to identify main fatigue contributions. Sensor data revealed a high impact of wave load for welds low on the monopile as well as notable contribution of the second order mode on fatigue damage below the mudline. Experimental analyses of modal parameters on operating wind turbines are associated with great technical expense, standstill times and therefore with high costs.

This makes experimental research on operating wind turbines, for example testing innovative measurement strategies, uneconomical. Thus it is desirable to conduct portions of experimental research on laboratory test structures. In this paper the development of a scaled laboratory test rig is presented.

It is designed in such a manner that the lower natural frequencies of a reference wind turbine are approximately reproduced. To find feasible physical parameters for the test rig, preliminary analyses based on an analytical model of a vertical cantilever beam with a top body were combined with experiments based on Operational Modal Analysis OMA and multibody simulations.

In this study, different methods are used to determine a nacelle-based lidar power curve. The methods used have already been published in other studies. However, these studies differed in environmental conditions, rated power, hub height, rotor diameter and in the evaluation criteria of the power curve. In this study, the published methods for the determination of nacelle-based lidar power curves will be used and evaluated with uniform criteria.

The basis for this is provided by measurements of ground- and nacelle-based lidar and met mast measurements at an IEC-conform site. The results show that some methods significantly reduce scattering in the performance curve and that the choice of measurement distances used has a significant influence on the quality of the results.

Gioia , P. Daems , P. Guillaume and J. Wind energy is one of the most promising renewable energy available today. The continuous demand of wind energy production led the interest of the wind industry towards bigger turbines.

This upscaling trend has imposed bigger not quasi-static loads that are significantly influencing the fatigue life of the wind turbine components and the tonalities generated by the drive train. To tackle noise and vibration problems and validate complex models it is of high interest to continuously track the modal parameters of the machines under different operating conditions.

This allows a better design of the new prototypes and the reduction of the risk of premature component failures, followed by a possible decrease of the cost of the energy. To do so Operational Modal Analysis represents a powerful tool. One limitation affecting this methodology when applied to rotating machines comes from the presence of harmonics.

Their predominance in the spectrum masks the modal content in the signal, making the extraction of the modal parameters impossible. The objective of this research is then to achieve a combination of automatic methodologies for dealing with the harmonics and automatic OMA techniques in order to be able to autonomously process a continuous stream of data. Bischoff , W. Gottschall and P. Assessing the uncertainty of floating lidar systems for different wind and wave climates is a difficult task.

One possible solution to close this gap is a validated simulation environment for floating lidar systems. This paper gives an overview about the simulation model which is being developed and shows ideas and first results regarding the validation aspects for the moving lidar environment.

Furthermore an outlook for further steps regarding the validation of the complete simulation model for a floating lidar system FLS is being given. F Ghorbanishohrat and D A Johnson. A study of airfoil behaviour is undertaken using two independent non-intrusive measurement techniques, surface oil flow visualization SOFV and infrared thermography IT to quantitatively determine flow parameters such as separation and reattachment points on the airfoil.

Several airfoil heating methods are described and several airfoil materials are evaluated. Innovative post processing methods are used for the IR temperature data to reveal important details of the flow. All methods provide comparable results and allow further understanding of these characteristics and the extension to large scale, dynamic and unsteady flow situations.

The IEC standards prescribe an inflow wind field based on models with empirical assumptions to perform load calculations. The use of preview wind speed measurements using nacelle-mounted Lidars allows mitigation of structural loads by suggesting appropriate control action.

This relationship is affected by uncertainty in site conditions and the dynamic control of wind turbine in different operation regimes. Although efforts have been put to derive the relation between the aerodynamic loading and the wind speed, there is scope to explore this relation using measurements.

Deriving the load statistics based on the inflow wind field is therefore necessary to establish the correct control strategies. This study focuses on two aspects: firstly, the effect of variability in the inflow conditions due to wind speed fluctuations, turbulence and wind evolution on loading statistics and secondly, the effect of different wind turbine operation modes and Lidar measurement ranges on loading statistics.

By understanding the effect of these two aspects on aerodynamic loading, a suitable control strategy can be designed by establishing correlation and coherence based look-up tables with inflow-loading relationship for each operation regime. The study defines a correlation between the Lidar measured wind speed and aerodynamic loading for three Lidar measurement ranges at below and above rated operation modes.

Strong correlations are observed at above-rated operation, while uneven correlations at below-rated operation are observed. The preview distances of 50 m and m provide the high correlation estimates The study of coherence between these two signals provides useful insights on the evolution of wind, the length scales present and the frequencies.

The coherence remains high for wavelengths upto m for above-rated and below-rated operations, the time scale was found to be around This site uses cookies.

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