A single copy of these materials may be reprinted for noncommercial personal use only. This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: verify here. This content does not have an English version. This content does not have an Arabic version. Sign Up. If you want to go gluten-free, "do it the right way," Mangieri said. Get smart. Here are 11 evidence-based ways to reduce bloating.
What Is Gluten? Share on Pinterest. Foods to Avoid. Foods to Eat. Health Benefits of a Gluten-Free Diet. Negative Effects. Gluten-Free Menu. Helpful Tips. The Bottom Line. Various prolamins exist, but all are related and have similar structures and properties.
The main prolamins in wheat include gliadin and glutenin, while the primary one in barley is hordein 2. Gluten proteins — such as glutenin and gliadin — are highly elastic, which is why gluten-containing grains are suited for making bread and other baked goods. In fact, extra gluten in the form of a powdered product called vital wheat gluten is often added to baked goods to increase the strength, rise, and shelf life of the finished product. Gluten-containing grains and foods make up a large portion of modern-day diets , with estimated intake in Western diets around 5—20 grams per day 1.
Gluten proteins are highly resistant to protease enzymes that break down proteins in your digestive tract. The incomplete digestion of proteins allows for peptides — large units of amino acids , which are the building blocks of proteins — to cross over through the wall of your small intestine into the rest of your body. This can trigger immune responses that have been indicated in a number of gluten-related conditions, such as celiac disease 3.
Gluten is an umbrella term that refers to a family of proteins known as prolamins. This is very important because the standard blood testing done as a first step to diagnosing these conditions is not meaningful unless gluten is being consumed for a significant period of time before testing.
It is also important to consult with your healthcare provider in order to evaluate other possible causes of symptoms. How are celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity diagnosed? DH is a form of celiac disease that triggers the immune system to attack the skin, rather than the small intestine. It causes a chronic itchy, bumpy rash that can be quite painful.
If people with DH continue to eat gluten, they also may run an increased risk of developing intestinal cancer. Once diagnosed, however, people with DH are usually highly motivated to stick with a gluten-free diet to steer clear of these painful rashes.
Two studies have evaluated the effects of a GFD in patients with endometriosis and chronic pelvic pain. This patient population either seeks to obtain benefit from symptoms without a confirmed diagnosis of a gluten-specific disorder, or these patients may seek some other benefit from a GFD rather than improvement in any specific symptom.
One impetus for the practice of gluten avoidance in this population may be the perception that a GFD is a nutritionally healthier option than a traditional Western diet. Another potential perceived benefit of a GFD is that it is associated with weight loss. Kim and colleagues evaluated a GFD and its effect on obesity, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular risk in non—celiac disease participants in the NHANES from to , and found that a GFD was associated with a decrease in weight over 1 year, lower waist circumference, and higher high density lipoprotein levels compared to the general population.
Limitations of this study include its retrospective nature and its ability to make only potential associations without establishing causality. In addition, just 1. Lastly, most GFD followers were health-conscious, well-educated women who may have been predicted to have better cardiovascular profiles than the general population, as well as greater diligence in pursuing weight loss. Some athletes have advocated for a GFD to enhance performance and stamina.
This group was made up of predominantly endurance sport athletes who reported gastrointestinal symptoms and fatigue that they believed were associated with gluten ingestion. Respondents indicated that their leading sources of information and guidance for a GFD were online A follow-up study of 13 cyclists without celiac disease was performed by the same investigators and consisted of a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial in which participants received either a GFD or GCD for 1 week, then crossed over after a day washout period.
Gluten-containing foods make up a large component of several diets, including the Western diet. These foods are relatively easy to cultivate and prepare, and represent readily available and cost-friendly options to meet the caloric demands of large populations.
Gluten is also a common additive to prepared foods due to its physical properties and palatability. With the popularity of GFDs, it is important to understand the nutritional quality, potential costs, and availability of this diet as well as the effects that excluding gluten can have on the population and food industry.
However, there is a great deal of discordance among the results; some studies have evaluated the nutritional quality of a GFD in patients with celiac disease, which could be a confounder for nutrient deficiencies due to impaired absorption and chronic inflammation. However, these studies can also yield important information on the nutritional quality and adequacy of a GFD. Wu and colleagues performed a comprehensive comparison of gluten-free foods with matched gluten-containing foods in Australian supermarkets based on nutritional quality.
Among food products across 10 food categories evaluated, the average HSR of gluten-free foods was not superior to gluten-containing foods, and no nutritional advantage was found for gluten-free foods. Gluten-free foods consistently showed lower average protein content across core food groups, especially pasta and breads. Gluten-free dry pastas scored nearly 0. However, there is debate regarding the small portion of protein from grains that make up total dietary protein and, therefore, whether the amount of protein is a significant concern.
The primary outcome ie, the average HSR was not different among other staple, grain-based food groups eg, breads and breakfast cereals. Apart from protein content, all other nutritional measures in the secondary analysis, including total energy, fiber content, saturated fats, total sugar, and sodium content, had no clear patterns of differences between gluten-free and gluten-containing foods.
Were my comments about the science behind the Paleo diet not part of a healthy dialog or otherwise unreliable? I fail to understand why Harvard would engage in deleting comments that are not in violation of the commenting policy and I find it more than a little disturbing that this institution would engage in undermining intellectual discourse. In an effort to optimize my health, I decided to try 30 days wheat-free. Since I was not looking to lose weight and I needed enough energy to complete my workouts, I opted to keep my caloric intake and overall diet the same by simply replacing my normal wheat based foods pasta, bread, etc with non-wheat foods rice, potatoes, corn.
More energy, sleeping more soundly, no more food cravings, no more headaches, and my stomach magically started shrinking with no reduction in calories or carbs.
First off, this article is appalling! Keep your dietary choice to yourself???? That is just rude and the author of this article is clearly misinformed. My son is now 12 years old and has almost perfect scores in Math and Science.
He has never been diagnosed with celiacs or even a sensitivity but I know that it effects him. Also I have endometreosis and I discovered that gluten causes more pain and heavier bleeding for me. Gluten free diets are not fads. I tell every parent I know with learning disabilities, or behavior issues to try going gluten free. One hundred percent of parents who have taken my advice have seen a marked improvement in their children.
My son, the science whiz, told me he found a documentary that showed that DOG DNA has been introduced into the genetically modified wheat. Guess what? Every single person who has followed my advice has begun to shed the pounds and most of it from their middle section. It seems to me the author is just spouting her own agenda instead of the truth. Keeping your dietary choice to go gluten free may be robbing someone of the chance to be finally free of a few of their health concerns.
I encourage everyone to share their dietary choice of going gluten free. Maybe then more people will become educated and people will have some hope in dealing with health concerns and hard to shed pounds. What a shame when an institution that could add to the important and relevant information of a situation, becomes subservient to corporate interests.
Everything Dr. I never felt better not eating it than I do now! You all remind me of the first surgeon who thought it would be safer to wash his hands before operating on a patient …and lost his license to practice as a physician from the AMA. Lol, these comments are hilarious! You wheat haters get soooooo defensive about your scientifically misinformed diet and you treat William Davis like some religious idol.
If the good folks at Harvard even have time to read your drivel I bet they are laughing their arses off. Keep them coming, folks! Yep, still laughing! You just keep telling yourself that, Diana. Let me preface this by saying I love wheat.
I have also seen the results of close family members removing it from their diet. Not only is it a sad pathetic comment that makes you look like you are about 12 but I question if you are not the original author of this sad little article in the first place.
Of course they are going to be defensive. This whole foods diet also tends to be heavily plant based, so a lack of nutrients is also a non-factor. Fiber is not a problem either; this article itself mentions some of the many ways we can get quality fiber: brown rice, quinoa, vegetables, etc. Honestly this article seems to have a limited western view point of diet in general.
Glycemic metabolism has been a 10, year old mistake made by the majority of human cultures, and is now spinning out of control thanks to dwarf hybrid wheat which contaminates a huge fraction of prepared foods , fructose HFCS , low fat insanity and lesser missteps in diet. The future, if we are to have one, appears to be aggressively low carb, perhaps often ketogenic. Just look at the trend charts for most ailments, such as Type II diabetes. T2DM is not just at a historical high, and not just rising, but accelerating.
Yet, switching to a low-carb diet halts it, prevents it, and can often reverse it. Conventional dietary advice has utterly failed to correct such trends. The question that needs to be confronted is: are the official diets contributing to the problem, perhaps even causing it?
That parrot only appears to be standing because its feet are nailed to the perch. Yes, going low-carb grain-free very-low-fructose paleo is a bit challenging at the moment. This is a temporary transitional situation. The immediate and long term health benefits are easily worth the modest extra effort. Shame on Harvard for allowing this sort of bad research, bad advice, overall wrong article to be posted under their name.
Holly is ignorant of all the research done over the past 10 years? Holly is ignorant of actual statistics? Holly thinks people reading this newsletter are airheads, random in their choices of food. Honestly, I am astonished to see this article under the Harvard banner. Absolutely correct. They should be ashamed of this article. I have recently investigated this topic in depth.
The people that advocate for such a diet are just the messengers who have put the science together succinctly for the masses. Yes, this is the disclaimer for this actual blog site!.
My college professors would have torn this piece of simple-minded illogic one-reference sourced article apart and I went to a State school. You dont need to spend extra money on expensive gluten free foods; eat rice, meat, cheese, fruit, potatoes, corn, vegtables,yogurt, nuts, hummus, etc.
TONS of healthy good food out there. Go out to eat at any restraunt; just refuse the bread basket; order steak, fish, chicken, vegetarian with rice, potatoes, vegtables. Pass on beer; drink wine! Shame on the Harvard nameplate being used for a simple dismissal of a concept that could better many peoples health. I am sure you can find a better use for your endowment money than paying this women to shill the opinion of one professor and five minutes of internet research to support his conclusions.
Avoid tapioca flour, cornstarch and white rice flour. You will loose weight easily and improve the cholesterol level. I can not believe that I paid money for the Harvard Health News letter once. I have lost respect for that institution. I have severe Rheumatoid Arthritis and for the first time in 25 years could I be without my horrible medications.
Holly, do you have a response? You did not hesitate to write your article, will you provide us with your rebuttal? You should give this lifestyle a try for 30 days and report back to your readers on how it affected you.
I would be truly surprised if you elected to allow wheat or any whole grain back in to your diet. An article with similar content was recently published over at FOX news…. Big Agra? Big Food? Big Pharma? It is less expensive to stop buying crackers, cereal, and pasta products. Time consuming? Meat and vegetables, salad, easy, easy, easy. Again, just my opinion but check out the gorgeous produce in abundance.
There is no down side to living gluten-free for the many people who do so every day. Perhaps the down side is for people like Dr. Leffler and Ms. Strawbridge who perpetuate and profit from the lies they tell, claiming them as facts. Sorry, but nobody is buying it anymore. The truth is out. I would never keep quiet about such truly wonderful news, and I would never consider taking advice from someone who tells me to keep my choice to myself.
Absolutely not. But, perhaps Dr. Leffler will take his own advice and keep his opinions to himself as they are not even helpful to his own patients who suffer from celiac disease. Try some encouragement and positive thinking, doc. The choice to eat well rests on all of our shoulders, not just those with celiac disease.
It might be in how you look at the wonderful opportunity before you. Leffler, the glass is half full, not half empty. Pass it on to your patients and stop being Dr. Rheumatoid Arthritis. Celiac Disease. Press Releases. Cardiovascular health. Screening and Monitoring Tests. Allergy Test. Celiac Disease Monitoring. In a study of people with epilepsy, around 6 percent tested positive for celiac disease. A person who has this disease will benefit from avoiding gluten.
Schizophrenia : Small studies have suggested that people with schizophrenia appear to be more likely to have the antibodies involved in celiac disease. Avoiding gluten may help those who have the antibodies. This does not mean that avoiding gluten can cure schizophrenia, autism or epilepsy. It means that people with those conditions are more likely to have celiac disease. A good example is most of Asia, where the main staple food is rice, not wheat.