Targeting undergraduate, allied health and first and second year medical students, the Eleventh. Edition includes new and enhanced images through redrawing and digitization to provide increased. This edition also features updated illustrations and information on the functions of cells,. The atlas ' student-friendly "Functional Correlations" sections help students study structure and.
Students also benefit from a "realistic" perspective as more than 70 micrographs. World Health Day Back to School Sale. Fall Sale. Cyber Monday Sale. Southern Cross Un Test Category - N Wish List Sale. Access Card Products. Third Party Products. Products with no Please enter a keyword to begin search.
Edit cart Proceed To Checkout. Atlas of Histology with Functional and Clinical Correlations. Naftel PhD, William P. Daley MD, James C. Lynch PhD, Duane E. Fratkin MD. Request Review Copy. Buy from another retailer. Promocode will not apply for this product. The unique Atlas of Histology with Functional and Clinical Correlations covers fundamental histology topics, integrates this essential information with clinical considerations, and provides multiple opportunities for student review.
Explanatory text in each chapter is combined with expanded figure legends in an innovative, integrated layout.
The "extras" include: Key Concepts sections providing comprehensive introductions to and summaries of the chapter in an easy-to-read format. Over Clinical Correlations that conclude the examination of most normal tissues and structures with a discussion and visual example of relevant pathology. Numerous Clinical Content boxes highlighted in blue among the running text, sharpening the clinical focus.
Create Alert. Launch Research Feed. Cui D. Cui Terminal web In the small intestine, microvilli enhance digestive and absorptive functions by increasing the area of the surface membrane of each columnar epithelial cell. This provides an expanded area of interface between the cell surface and the nutrients in the lumen.
Tall and slender columnar cells and the relationship of the terminal web are illustrated here. Cui Intraepithelial lymphocyte Figure C. Celiac Coeliac Disease. Celiac coeliac disease is a disorder of the small intestine. Gluten, a substance found in wheat and barley, reacts with the lining of the small intestine small bowel , leading to an attack by the immune system and damage to microvilli and villi.
If left untreated, coeliac disease can lead to malabsorption, anemia, bone disease, and, rarely, some forms of cancer. The most important treatment is avoidance of all foods that contain gluten. Histologic features include blunting of villi, presence of lymphocytes among the epithelial cells intraepithelial lymphocytes , and increased lymphocytes within the lamina propria connective tissue. Cui Terminal web actin filaments Terminal web actin filaments Adhering junction zonula adherens Transmembrane link protein Intracellular line protein Actin filaments D.
Components of the junctional complex. Gap Junction This is a view of parts of two adjacent epithelial cells that line the gallbladder. The three types of cell junctions that typically compose the junctional complex can be distinguished. The zonula occludens junction has branching strands of fusion between the plasmalemma of the two cells.
This effectively prevents movement of material across the epithelium by the passage between adjacent cells. The zonula adherens junction provides a collar of mechanical adhesion between neighboring cells. The third element of the junctional complex is an array of scattered desmosomes maculae adherentes; singular, macula adherens. These provide mechanical adhesion between adjacent cells in spots.
Basement membrane Figure B. Intercellular connections of the epithelial cells include 1 tight junctions zonular occludens ; 2 adhering junctions zonula adherens ; 3 desmosomes macula adherens ; 4 gap junctions; and 5 hemidesmosomes. The junctional complex is composed of a tight junction, an adhering junction, and a desmosome. See the chapter introduction for detailed information. Cytoplasm Connexons Cell membrane D. However, the basal aspect of each cell is in contact with the basement membrane.
Most cells are tall and columnar, but there are also short basal cells, some of which are stem cells. Cilia on the apical surfaces of some cells are closely packed like bristles of a brush. The pink line indicated by the arrow inset is formed by the basal bodies, from which the cilia arise. Cui Basal body Secretory goblet cells are interspersed among the ciliated columnar cells.
Cilia are elongated, motile structures that are about 5 to 10 times longer than microvilli. The core of a cilium is composed of microtubules, which are inserted into basal bodies, electron-dense structures in the apical cytoplasm just below the cell membrane. The function of cilia is to aid in the transport of material along the surface of the cells, such as moving mucus and particulate matter out of the respiratory tract. Basal cells are short, located in the basal portion of the epithelium, and do not reach the lumen.
The epithelium may appear to have more than one layer; in fact, all of its cells are in contact with the basement membrane. Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of chronic bronchitis.
This process is called squamous metaplasia. The goblet cells secrete mucus onto the surface of the epithelium. This mucus serves to trap airborne particles that have not been trapped by the nasal cavities. The ciliated cells convey the mucus with any captured material toward the larynx and the pharynx. Mucociliary escalator is the term sometimes used to refer to this system that protects the delicate respiratory structures of the lung from airborne microorganisms and foreign particulate matter.
Cilia, basal body, and junctional complex. Microvilli, terminal web, and junctional complex. Stereocilia and junctional complex.
The core axoneme of each cilium is composed of microtubules and associated proteins, most notably the molecular motor dynein. The microtubules are arranged as nine peripheral doublets with two central singlets. Each cilium extends from a basal body just beneath the apical surface of the epithelial cell. Basal bodies also have microtubules as a major component.
These form an orderly array of nine peripheral triplets with no central microtubules, an arrangement seen also in centrioles. Microvilli of the intestinal epithelium are about 0.
Stereocilia are extremely long microvilli. Like ordinary microvilli, stereocilia are less than 0. The greatly expanded surface area afforded by the stereocilia probably contributes to this function.
Cross section of cilia. The microtubules have an extremely orderly, consistent arrangement into two separate, central microtubules surrounded by nine sets of doublet microtubules. Cui B Figure B. Cross section microvilli. Cui of Many examples of columnar and cuboidal epithelia comprise cells that bear microvilli, but absorptive cells lining the small intestine provide the premier example of tightly packed microvilli that provide a pronounced increase in surface area of the plasma membrane.
Microvilli are less than half the diameter of cilia, and their cores have a much simpler structure. The fuzzy coating on the membranes of the microvilli is the glycocalyx. Microvilli increase apical surface area to aid in absorption. Cilia aid in the transport of material across the surface of the epithelium. Surround the apical borders and serve as impermeable barriers.
They provide mechanical stability of the cells. Basolateral folds may also be present. The intermediate layers contain cells that are polyhedral. The cells close to the basement membrane are cuboidal in shape and are called basal cells; they are stem cells that are continuously dividing and migrating from the basal layer toward the surface as they differentiate. Squamous cell Basal cuboidal cell Basement membrane Connective tissue D. This tough keratinized layer resists friction and is impermeable to water.
Only the cells in the deepest layer are in contact with the basement membrane. The white dashed line indicates the depth of the epithelial layer epidermis and the boundaries of the dermal papilla and rete ridge. Cui Dilated capillary Figure C. T lymphocyte—mediated immunologic reactions are believed to cause the clinical features. Symptoms and signs include itching, joint pain, nail pitting, and nail discoloration. Pathologic examinations reveal a thickened epidermis caused by increased epidermal cell turnover and extensive overlying parakeratotic scales.
Neutrophils may migrate into the epidermis from dilated capillaries to form microabscesses within the parakeratotic area of the stratum corneum layer of the epidermis and micropustules within the stratum granulosum and spinosum layers of the epidermis as shown in this illustration.
The dashed lines illustrate the depth of the epithelial layer. Connective tissue B Figure B. Squamous cell Basement membrane Basal cuboidal cell Connective tissue D. Cui This type of epithelium is formed by multiple layers of cells. Barrett Syndrome Barrett Esophagus. Patients with Barrett syndrome have a high risk of developing adenocarcinoma cancer of the esophagus.
This uncommon type of epithelium has a very limited distribution. It may be found forming the ducts of some large exocrine glands and sweat glands. It functions to form a conduit for the secretory products of the gland. This type of epithelium is composed usually of only two layers of cuboidal cells, with the basal layer of cells often appearing incomplete.
The top layer is composed of uniform cuboidal cells, whereas the basal cells sometimes appear to form an incomplete layer Fig. Connective tissue D. Salivary Gland Swelling. This causes the saliva to back up inside the duct, resulting in gland swelling. The patient will feel pain when chewing food. The most common cause of blockage is a salivary stone calculus , which forms from salts contained in the saliva.
A typical symptom of a blocked salivary duct is swelling that worsens just before mealtime. Sometimes, a small stone may be ejected into the mouth without medical intervention. A dentist may be able to push the stone out by pressing on the side of the obstructed duct. Removal of a stone may require surgery or lithotripsy treatment by focused, high-intensity acoustic pulses.
The basal cells are cuboidal in shape, and the surface layer cells are low columnar in shape only slightly taller than wide. The conjunctiva has a smooth surface that is kept moist and lubricated by tears and a mucinous substance in the normal condition. The arrowheads point to columnar cells of the surface layer of the epithelium inset.
Stratified columnar cells B Figure B. It can cause eyelid deformities and turned-in eyelashes that scrape against the cornea. If left untreated, ulceration and infection of the cornea may occur. Trachoma can even cause loss of vision if scarring occurs on the central part of the cornea. The epithelial hyperplasia and inclusion bodies in the epithelial cells are illustrated here.
Transitional epithelium, urinary bladder. This picture illustrates transitional epithelium in a relaxed state in most slides, this tissue is unstretched and the surface cells appear dome shaped. The lumen of the bladder appears as a white space.
The transitional epithelium lining the urinary tract including the bladder, ureter, and major calyces of the kidney is also referred to as urothelium. The black dashed line indicates the thickness of the epithelium. Cui Connective tissue D. Transitional epithelium relaxed. The relaxed, normal transitional epithelium is composed of four to six layers of cells.
The cells located basally are smaller, low columnar or cuboidal cells. Figure C. Transitional epithelium distended. A presentation of transitional epithelium in the distended state is shown. These cells change shape according to the degree of distention of the bladder. Metaplasia: The reversible process by which one mature cell type changes into another mature cell type, as in squamous metaplasia of respiratory or glandular epithelia Figs.
Microabscess: Collection of neutrophils and neutrophil debris within the parakeratotic scale in the skin disease psoriasis Fig. Micropustule: Collection of neutrophils within the epidermis, abutting the parakeratotic scale in the skin disease psoriasis Fig. Parakeratosis: Persistence of the nuclei of keratinocytes into the stratum corneum of the skin or mucous membranes; parakeratotic scales containing neutrophils are seen in the skin disease psoriasis Fig.
Exocrine glands are discussed in this chapter; these glands secrete their products either through ducts into the lumen of an organ or directly onto the body surfaces. The parotid gland, the gland of von Ebner of the tongue, the pancreas, and sweat glands are examples of this type of gland.
Goblet cells in the small and large intestines, respiratory epithelium Fig. The sebaceous glands in the skin are good examples. The release of secretory zymogen granules by pancreatic acinar cells is an example of merocrine secretion.
Merocrine mechanism is the most common mode. The lipid secretion by epithelial cells of the mammary gland belongs to this mode of secretion. The secretory cell dies and a new secretory cell is formed from a nearby basal cell. The fatty lubricant secretory product, sebum, is released by the cells of sebaceous glands by holocrine secretion.
The secretory products are released directly onto the surface of an epithelium. Goblet cells are an example of this type of gland Fig. In general, the terms simple and compound are tied to their duct shape. Simple glands have unbranched ducts or lack ducts. Compound glands have branched ducts. The cells of the multicellular glands are arranged into secretory units in the form of acini or tubules. The secretory cells are arranged in straight tubules Fig. This type of gland can be found in small and large intestines.
This type of gland can be found in the stomach. Sweat glands are examples of this type of gland. The mucus-secreting glands in the submucosa of the penile urethra are examples of this type of gland.
The sebaceous glands of the skin belong to this type. Their secretory cells are formed into branched tubules as can be found in the Brunner glands of the duodenum Fig. The essential universe, from our most celebrated and beloved astrophysicist. Search this site. A Primer for Appointment Setters. PDF Download.
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