ap biology free response questions dna and protein synthesis

ap biology free response questions dna and protein synthesis

Fires frequently occur in some ecosystems and can destroy all above-ground vegetation. Many species of plants in these ecosystems respond to compounds in smoke that regulate seed germination after a major fire. Karrikins KAR and trimethylbutenolides TMB are water-soluble compounds found in smoke that are deposited in the soil as a result of a fire.

In a study on the effects of smoke on seeds, researchers recorded the timing and percent of seed germination in the presence of various combinations of KAR and TMB. The results are shown in Figure 1. Identify the appropriate treatment groups and results from the table that, when compared with the controls, provide support for each claim.

In a second investigation into the effect of available water on seed germination after a fire, researchers treated seeds with KAR or TMB. The treated seeds were then divided into two treatment groups. One group received a water rinse and the other group received no water rinse. The seeds were then incubated along with a group of control seeds that were not treated.

The results are shown in the table. Gibberellin is the primary plant hormone that promotes stem elongation. GA 3-beta-hydroxylase GA3H is the enzyme that catalyzes the reaction that converts a precursor of gibberellin to the active form of gibberellin.

A mutation in the GA3H gene results in a short plant phenotype. When a pure-breeding tall plant is crossed with a pure-breeding short plant, all offspring in the F1 generation are tall. When the F1 plants are crossed with each other, 75 percent of the plants in the F2 generation are tall and 25 percent of the plants are short.

The mutant allele encodes a GA3H enzyme with threonine Thr , a polar amino acid, at position Describe the effect of the mutation on the enzyme and provide reasoning to support how this mutation results in a short plant phenotype in homozygous recessive plants. The table above shows how much each organism in an aquatic ecosystem relies on various food sources. The rows represent the organisms in the ecosystem, and the columns represent the food source.

The percentages indicate the proportional dietary composition of each organism. High percentages indicate strong dependence of an organism on a food source.

Write the organism names on the appropriate lines AND draw the arrows necessary to indicate the energy flow between organisms in the ecosystem. Based on the data in the table, predict whether the spraying of the fungus will have the greatest short-term impact on the population of the stoneflies, the caddisflies, or the hellgrammites.

Microcystis aeruginosis is a freshwater photosynthetic cyanobacterium. When temperatures increase and nutrients are readily available in its pond habitat, M.

The nucleus of an individual cell is placed on a microscope slide coated with an agarose gel. An electric current is applied to the gel that causes DNA to move electrophoresis , and the DNA is stained with a fluorescent dye. When viewed using a microscope, undamaged DNA from the nucleus appears as a round shape the head , and the fragments of damaged DNA extend out from the head the tail. The length of the tail corresponds to the amount of the damage in the DNA see Figure 1.

Predict the likely results of a comet assay for this treatment. Many species of bacteria grow in the mouths of animals and can form biofilms on teeth plaque. Within plaque, the outer layers contain high levels of oxygen and the layers closest to the tooth contain low levels of oxygen.

The surface of the tooth is covered in a hard layer of enamel, which can be dissolved under acidic conditions. When the enamel breaks down, the bacteria in plaque can extract nutrients from the tooth and cause cavities. Certain types of bacteria e. Other types of bacteria Streptococcus sanguinis compete with S. Many commercial toothpastes contain alkaline components, which raise the pH of the mouth. Predict how the population sizes of S. Estrogens are small hydrophobic lipid hormones that promote cell division and the development of reproductive structures in mammals.

Estrogens passively diffuse across the plasma membrane and bind to their receptor proteins in the cytoplasm of target cells. The researcher uses the antibodies in an attempt to treat estrogen-dependent cancers but finds that the treatment is ineffective.

Explain the ineffectiveness of the antibodies for treating estrogen-dependent cancers. Leucine aminopeptidases LAPs are found in all living organisms and have been associated with the response of the marine mussel, Mytilus edulis, to changes in salinity.

LAPs are enzymes that remove N-terminal amino acids from proteins and release the free amino acids into the cytosol. To investigate the evolution of LAPs in wild populations of M. The researchers then determined the percent of individuals possessing a particular lap allele, lap94, in mussels from each sample site table 1.

Predict the likely lap94 allele frequency at a sampling site between site 1 and site 2 in Long Island Sound. Describe the function of LAP94 in maintaining water balance in the mussels living in the Atlantic Ocean. As larvae mature, they attach to the rocks in the water. Explain the differences in lap94 allele frequency among adult mussel populations at the sample sites despite the dispersal of larvae throughout the entire study area. Predict the likely effect on distribution of mussels in Long Island Sound if the lap94 allele was found in all of the mussels in the population.

Bacteria can be cultured in media with a carefully controlled nutrient composition. The graph above shows the growth of a bacterial population in a medium with limiting amounts of two nutrients, I and II. Using the data, describe what prevents further growth of the bacterial population in the culture.

Use the graph to justify your response. Propose ONE advantage of the nutrient preference for an individual bacterium. Provide TWO reasons that the population does not grow between hours 5 and 6. The graph above illustrates the percent dry weight of different parts of a particular annual plant plants that live less than one year from early May to late August.

The percent dry weight can be used to estimate the amount of energy a plant uses to produce its leaves, vegetative buds, stems, roots, and reproductive parts seeds, receptacles, and flowers. Propose ONE evolutionary advantage of the energy allocation strategy in annual plants compared with that in perennial plants.

The figure represents the process of expression of gene X in a eukaryotic cell. Describe the modification that most likely resulted in the 8 kb difference in length of the mature mRNA molecule. Identify in your response the location in the cell where the change occurs. The graph above shows the mass of plants from two different species over time. The plants grew while attached to each other. The plants were separated at the time indicated by the vertical line in the graph.

Convert from PDF. Convert to PDF. Free Resources. This reaction is catalyzed by ribosomes and generates one water molecule. In addition to the mRNA template, many molecules and macromolecules contribute to the process of translation.

The composition of each component may vary across species; for instance, ribosomes may consist of different numbers of rRNAs and polypeptides depending on the organism. However, the general structures and functions of the protein synthesis machinery are comparable from bacteria to human cells.

Click through the steps of this PBS interactive to see protein synthesis in action. Even before an mRNA is translated, a cell must invest energy to build each of its ribosomes. A ribosome is a complex macromolecule composed of structural and catalytic rRNAs, and many distinct polypeptides. In eukaryotes, the nucleolus is completely specialized for the synthesis and assembly of rRNAs. Ribosomes exist in the cytoplasm in prokaryotes and in the cytoplasm and rough endoplasmic reticulum in eukaryotes.

Mitochondria and chloroplasts also have their own ribosomes in the matrix and stroma, which look more similar to prokaryotic ribosomes and have similar drug sensitivities than the ribosomes just outside their outer membranes in the cytoplasm. Ribosomes dissociate into large and small subunits when they are not synthesizing proteins and reassociate during the initiation of translation. Mammalian ribosomes have a small 40S subunit and a large 60S subunit, for a total of 80S.

Each mRNA molecule is simultaneously translated by many ribosomes, all synthesizing protein in the same direction: reading the mRNA from 5' to 3' and synthesizing the polypeptide from the N terminus to the C terminus.

Depending on the species, 40 to 60 types of tRNAs exist in the cytoplasm. Serving as adaptors, specific tRNAs bind to sequences on the mRNA template and add the corresponding amino acid to the polypeptide chain.

Of the 64 possible mRNA codons—or triplet combinations of A, U, G, and C—three specify the termination of protein synthesis and 61 specify the addition of amino acids to the polypeptide chain.

Of these 61, one codon AUG also encodes the initiation of translation. Each tRNA anticodon can base pair with one of the mRNA codons and add an amino acid or terminate translation, according to the genetic code. As the adaptor molecules of translation, it is surprising that tRNAs can fit so much specificity into such a small package.

Consider that tRNAs need to interact with three factors: 1 they must be recognized by the correct aminoacyl synthetase see below ; 2 they must be recognized by ribosomes; and 3 they must bind to the correct sequence in mRNA. The corresponding amino acid must be added later, once the tRNA is processed and exported to the cytoplasm. At least one type of aminoacyl tRNA synthetase exists for each of the 20 amino acids; the exact number of aminoacyl tRNA synthetases varies by species.

These enzymes first bind and hydrolyze ATP to catalyze a high-energy bond between an amino acid and adenosine monophosphate AMP ; a pyrophosphate molecule is expelled in this reaction. As with mRNA synthesis, protein synthesis can be divided into three phases: initiation, elongation, and termination. The process of translation is similar in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

Protein synthesis begins with the formation of an initiation complex. If you've found an issue with this question, please let us know. With the help of the community we can continue to improve our educational resources.

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Home Embed. Email address: Your name:. Example Question : Ap Biology. Which type of mutation does not change an organism's phenotype despite changing its genotype?

Possible Answers: Nonsense. Correct answer: Silent. Explanation : Silent mutations will change a DNA sequence without affecting the phenotype of the organism.

Report an Error. Possible Answers: Cancer. Correct answer: A higher rate of mutations during replication. Which of the following proteins are not situated within the core of the nucleosome?

Possible Answers: H1. Correct answer: H1. Describe the function of LAP94 in maintaining water balance in the mussels living in the Atlantic Ocean.

As larvae mature, they attach to the rocks in the water. Explain the differences in lap94 allele frequency among adult mussel populations at the sample sites despite the dispersal of larvae throughout the entire study area. Predict the likely effect on distribution of mussels in Long Island Sound if the lap94 allele was found in all of the mussels in the population. Bacteria can be cultured in media with a carefully controlled nutrient composition. The graph above shows the growth of a bacterial population in a medium with limiting amounts of two nutrients, I and II.

Using the data, describe what prevents further growth of the bacterial population in the culture. Use the graph to justify your response. Propose ONE advantage of the nutrient preference for an individual bacterium. Provide TWO reasons that the population does not grow between hours 5 and 6.

The graph above illustrates the percent dry weight of different parts of a particular annual plant plants that live less than one year from early May to late August.

The percent dry weight can be used to estimate the amount of energy a plant uses to produce its leaves, vegetative buds, stems, roots, and reproductive parts seeds, receptacles, and flowers. Propose ONE evolutionary advantage of the energy allocation strategy in annual plants compared with that in perennial plants.

The figure represents the process of expression of gene X in a eukaryotic cell. Describe the modification that most likely resulted in the 8 kb difference in length of the mature mRNA molecule. Identify in your response the location in the cell where the change occurs. The graph above shows the mass of plants from two different species over time.

The plants grew while attached to each other. The plants were separated at the time indicated by the vertical line in the graph. Using template 1, graph the predicted shape of the plant-mass lines after separation of the two plants if the plants were in an obligate mutualistic relationship.

On template 2, graph the predicted shape of the plant-mass lines if the species 2 plant was a parasite of the species 1 plant.

Justify each of your predictions. To investigate whether silver carp, an invasive fish, have moved from a nearby river system into Lake Michigan, researchers tested water samples for the presence of eDNA specific to silver carp Figure 2. The researchers concluded that the single positive sample was a false positive and that no silver carp had entered Lake Michigan.

Flower color is controlled by a single gene in which the green allele G is dominant to the purple allele g. Plant height is controlled by a different gene in which the dwarf allele D is dominant to the tall allele d. Show the chromosomes and the allele s they carry. Assume the genes are located on different chromosomes and the gene for flower color is on chromosome 1. Researchers conducted a study to investigate the effect of exercise on the release of prolactin into the blood.

As a control, the researchers measured the concentration of blood prolactin in the same group of individuals at the same times of day one week later, but without having them exercise. Justify your answer. Circadian rhythms are controlled by both genetics and environmental conditions, including light.

Researchers investigated the effect of light on mouse behavior by using a running wheel with a motion sensor to record activity on actograms, as shown in Figure 1. Each mouse was provided with adequate food, water, bedding material, and a running wheel. The mice were exposed to daily periods of 12 hours of light L and 12 hours of dark D LD12 for 14 days, and their activity was continuously monitored.

The activity data are shown in Figure 2. After 14 days in LD12, the mice were placed in continuous darkness DD , and their activity on the running wheel was recorded as before. The activity data under DD conditions are shown in Figure 3. Describe ONE role of each of the following anatomical structures in responding to lightdark stimuli.

Predict the observed activity pattern of the mutant mice under LD12 conditions and under DD conditions that would support the claim that light overrides the genetically controlled circadian rhythm. Describe TWO features of a model that represents how the predator-prey relationship between the birds and the mice may have resulted in the evolution of the observed activity pattern of the mice.

In cellular respiration, carbohydrates and other metabolites are oxidized, and the resulting energy-transfer reactions support the synthesis of ATP. Calculate the amount of energy available from the hydrolysis of 30 moles of ATP. Calculate the efficiency of total ATP production from 1 mole of glucose in the organism. Describe what happens to the excess energy that is released from the metabolism of glucose. Pose a scientific question that connects the subcellular location of the enzymes in the Krebs cycle to the evolution of eukaryotes.

The table below shows the number of differences in the sequences between each pair of species. Provide reasoning for the placement on the tree of the species that is least related to the others.

Describe TWO features of the cell division processes that lead to these differences. The results of five different experimental treatments from classic investigations of phototropism are shown above. Using the results from treatment groups IV and V, describe TWO additional characteristics of the phototropism response.

The snakes reproduce sexually, and there are abundant resources in the environment. The figure below shows the results of a study of the snake population both before and after the introduction of the outside males. In the study, the numbers of captured snakes indicate the overall population size.

The binding of odorant molecules to the receptor proteins triggers action potentials in the olfactory neurons and results in transmission of information to the brain. Mammalian genomes typically have approximately 1, functional odorant-receptor genes, each encoding a unique odorant receptor. In a certain plant species, stem trichome density is genetically determined. To investigate variation in stem trichome density within the plant species, a student counted the number of trichomes on the stems of six plants in each of three different populations.

The student used the data to calculate the mean trichome density numbers of hairs per square centimeter for each population. The results are provided in the table below a On the axes provided, create an appropriately labeled graph to illustrate the sample means of the three populations to within 95 percent confidence i.

Justify your response. Also identify an appropriate duration of the experiment to ensure that natural selection is measured and predict the experimental results that would support the hypothesis. Mammalian milk also contains a sugar lactose and may contain proteins protein A, protein B, and casein , as indicated in the table. Indicate on the cladogram where each of the characters most likely arose in the evolutionary process, and justify the placement of the characters on the cladogram.

Predict ONE ecological consequence on the local plant community that is likely to result during the site and construction of the sports complex. To maintain the playing fields, large quantities of water and chemicals are applied regularly to the grass- covered areas. Predict ONE effect on the local animal community that might result from regular use and maintenance of the playing fields.

Silent mutations will change a DNA sequence without affecting the phenotype of the organism. This can occur either in an intron, which will not be translated, or by replacing a single nucleotide with another nucleotide without changing the amino acid recruited by the codon. Silent mutations often result from the degenercy of codons. Frameshift, missense, and nonsense mutations, however, change both an organism's genotype and phenotype by altering its DNA. A frameshift mutation results from the insertion or deletion of a nucleotide, causing a shift in the codon reading frame for every codon read after the mutation. Missense mutations replace one amino acid with another, and nonsense mutations result in a premature stop codon, terminating translation and resulting in a shortened protein. What would be an immediate consequence for a cell with a mutant version of DNA polymerase III that has lost its proofreading function? The other options could potentially happen later in the cell's life, but they would only occur as indirect results of the new mutations. Histones are composed of several proteins, and are used to compact DNA within the nucleus. When DNA is wrapped around a group of eight histones, the resulting structure is a nucleosome. The histone protein H1 is affixed on top of the nucleosome beaded structure, so as to keep the DNA that prltein wrapped around the nucleosome in place. It is not found in the core of the nucleosome. For correct mismatch repair all three of the choices are essential. A nuclease is required to remove ap biology free response questions dna and protein synthesis damaged DNA. Lipase is the general name for an enzyme that breaks down lipids. DNA polymerase is the ap biology free response questions dna and protein synthesis that catalyzes the polymerization wynthesis nucleotides in the ap biology free response questions dna and protein synthesis to 3' direction. Helicase separates the two strands of adobe flash player 19 free download for windows 7 double helix to facilitate formation of the replication bubble. Gyrase ap biology free response questions dna and protein synthesis strain on the DNA while it is being unwound by helicase. Proofreading is an important part of responsd DNA replication process to ensure that if mismatched base pairs are incorporated into the newly synthesized DNA proteib, they get replaced with correct base paired nucleotides. Mismatched base pairs have the potential to cause disease. DNA polymerases have proofreading abilities. They are able to remove mismatched nucleotides from the end of a newly synthesized strand. Post-replication repair mechanisms also exist to prevent damage and error. You can get DNA replication to initiate ap biology free response questions dna and protein synthesis it never goes for very long without stopping. ap biology free response questions dna and protein synthesis AP® BIOLOGY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS. BIOLOGY (a) Circle ONE arrow that represents transcription on the template pathway. Identify the of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from a representative individual of each species. AP® BIOLOGY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS: DNA and Protein Synthesis. 1. The flow of genetic information from DNA to protein in. APR BIOLOGY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS The flow of genetic information from DNA to protein in eukaryotic cells is called the central dogma of biology. (a) Explain the role of each of the following in protein synthesis in eukaryotic. Fill Ap Biology Response Questions Dna And Protein Synthesis, Edit online. Sign​, fax and printable from PC, iPad, tablet or mobile with PDFfiller ✓ Instantly. Can you describe these processes on the AP® Bio Exam? The answers to these questions lie in the biological processes of transcription and translation. Unlike DNA, however, RNA can take a variety of forms and shapes. Albert has hundreds of AP® Biology practice questions, free response, and. Biology free response questions, these topics are often intertwined with other topics. Form B of the free response section has had several transcription and translation heavy questions →Transcription: synthesizing RNA from a DNA template. The AP Bio FRQs are 60% of the exam including 2 long questions and 4 (a) Circle ONE arrow that represents transcription on the template pathway. Researchers collected complete mitochondrial DNA sequences from. This Quiz Must be taken by Wed Dec 6 AP Bio Transcription and Translation for AP ® BIOLOGY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS: DNA and Protein Synthesis. Terms and problems involving protein synthesis and inheritance. Learn with flashcards, games, and more — for free. Christopher McCarter AP Biology 2/28/13 6 th Period Ch. 16 & 17 DNA and Protein Synthesis- Free Response Questions 1. A molecule of messenger RNA. It is then processed. This feedback type of control is effective as long as the chemical affecting it is attached to the enzyme. This preview shows page 1 — 2 out of 2 pages. Synology Drive. Eukaryotic genes are switched on and off by transcription factors. Previous Next. Sample Responses Q8. Sample Responses Q1. A variety of mechanisms is used to control cellular respiration. When hexokinase is inhibited, glucose diffuses out of the cell and does not become a substrate for the respiration pathways in that tissue. In other words, if the initial reaction takes place, the pathway is committed to proceeding with the remaining reactions. ap biology free response questions dna and protein synthesis