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Your rating has been recorded. Write a review Rate this item: 1 2 3 4 5. Preview this item Preview this item. Subjects Drugs -- Dosage forms. Report Close Quick Download Go to remote file. Documents can only be sent to your Kindle devices from e-mail accounts that you added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List. What's the problem with this file? Pharmacy was officially separated from medicine for the first time in ad, when a decree of Emperor Frederick II of Germany regulated the practice of pharmacy within the part of his kingdom called the Two Sicilies.
His edict separating the two professions acknowledged that pharmacy required special knowledge, skill, initiative, and responsibility if adequate care to the medical needs of the people was to be guaranteed. Pharmacists were obligated by oath to prepare reliable drugs of uniform quality according to their art.
Any exploitation of the patient through business relations between the pharmacist and the physician was strictly forbidden. Between that time and the evolution of chemistry as an exact science, pharmacy and chemistry became united as pharmacy and medicine had been. Perhaps no person in history exercised such a revolutionary influence on pharmacy and medicine as did Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim — , a He influenced the transformation of pharmacy from a profession based primarily on botanical science to one based on chemical science.
Some of his chemical observations were astounding for his time and for their anticipation of later discoveries. He believed it was possible to prepare a specific medicinal agent to combat each specific disease and introduced a host of chemical substances to internal therapy.
Early Research As the knowledge of the basic sciences increased, so did their application to pharmacy. The opportunity was presented for the investigation of medicinal materials on a firm scientific basis, and the challenge was accepted by numerous pharmacists who conducted their research in the back rooms and basements of their pharmacies. Noteworthy among them was the Swede Karl Wilhelm Scheele — , perhaps the most famous of all pharmacists because of his scientific genius and dramatic discoveries.
Among his discoveries were the chemicals lactic acid, citric acid, oxalic acid, tartaric acid, and arsenic acid. He identified glycerin, invented new methods of preparing calomel and benzoic acid, and discovered oxygen a year before Priestley.
Joseph Caventou — and Joseph Pelletier — combined their talents and isolated quinine and cinchonine from cinchona and strychnine and brucine from nux vomica. Pelletier together with Pierre Robiquet — isolated caffeine, and Robiquet independently separated codeine from opium. Methodically, one chemical after another was isolated from plant drugs and identified as an agent responsible for the plants' medicinal activity. Today we are still engaged in this fascinating activity as we probe nature for more useful and more specific therapeutic agents.
They applied the art and the science of pharmacy to the preparation of drug products with the highest standards of purity, uniformity, and efficacy possible at that time. The extraction and isolation of active constituents from crude unprocessed botanical drugs led to the development of dosage forms of uniform strength containing singly effective therapeutic agents of natural origin. Many pharmacists of the period began to manufacture quality pharmaceutical products on a small but steadily increasing scale to meet the growing needs of their communities.
Some of today's largest pharmaceutical research and manufacturing companies developed from these progressive prescription laboratories of two centuries ago. Although many of the drugs indigenous to America and first used by the American Indians were adopted by the settlers, most drugs needed in this country before the 19th century were imported from Europe, either as the raw materials or as finished products.
With the Revolutionary War, however, it became more difficult to import drugs, and the American pharmacist was stimulated to acquire the scientific and technologic expertise of his European contemporary. From this period until the Civil War, pharmaceutical manufacture was in its infancy in this country.
A few of the pharmaceutical firms established during the early s are still in operation. In , the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy was established as the nation's first school of pharmacy. INDD 8 Drug Standards As the scientific basis for drugs and drug products developed, so did the need for uniform standards to ensure quality.
This need led to the development and publication of monographs and reference books containing such standards to be used by those involved in the production of drugs and pharmaceutical products. Organized sets of monographs or books of these standards are called pharmacopeias or formularies. The United States Pharmacopeia and the National Formulary The term pharmacopeia comes from the Greek pharmakon, meaning drug, and poiein, meaning make, and the combination indicates any recipe or formula or other standards required to make or prepare a drug.
The term was first used in in connection with a local book of drug standards in Bergamo, Italy. From that time on, countless city, state, and national pharmacopeias were published by various European pharmaceutical societies.
As time passed, the value of a uniform set of national drug standards became apparent. In Great Britain, for example, three city pharmacopeias—the London, the Edinburgh, and the Dublin—were official until , when they were replaced by the British Pharmacopoeia BP. In the United States, drug standards were first provided on a national basis in , when the first USP was published.
However, the need for drug standards was recognized in this country long before the first USP was published. For convenience and because of their familiarity with them, colonial physicians and apothecaries used the pharmacopeias and other references of their various homelands. It was a page booklet containing information on 84 internal and 16 external drugs and preparations. In , the Massachusetts Medical Society published a page pharmacopeia containing information or monographs on drugs and pharmaceutical preparations.
Included were monographs on many drugs indigenous to America, which were not described in the European pharmacopeias of the day. Spalding's efforts were later to result in his being recognized as the Father of the United States Pharmacopeia. He proposed dividing the United States as then known into four geographic districts— northern, middle, southern, and western.
The plan provided for a convention in each of these districts, to be composed of delegates from all medical societies and medical schools within them.
Where there was as yet no incorporated medical society or medical school, voluntary associations of physicians and surgeons were invited to assist in the undertaking. Each district's convention was to draft a pharmacopeia and appoint delegates to a general convention to be held later in Washington, DC. At the general convention, the four district pharmacopeias were to be compiled into a single national pharmacopeia.
Draft pharmacopeias were submitted to the convention by only the northern and middle districts. The first USP was published on December 15, , in English and Latin, then the international language of medicine, to render the book more intelligible to physicians and pharmacists of any nationality.
Within its pages were listed drugs considered worthy of recognition; many of them were taken from the Massachusetts Pharmacopeia, which is considered by some to be the precursor to Reprinted with permission from the United States Pharmacopeial Convention. The objective of the first USP was stated in its preface and remains important. It reads in part It is the object of a Pharmacopeia to select from among substances which possess medicinal power, those, the utility of which is most fully established and best understood; and to form from them preparations and compositions, in which their powers may be exerted to the greatest advantage.
It should likewise distinguish those articles by convenient and definite names, such as may prevent trouble or uncertainty in the intercourse of physicians and apothecaries 1. As many new drugs entered use, the need for more frequent issuance of standards became increasingly apparent. In , the Pharmacopeial Convention granted authority to issue supplements to the USP whenever necessary to maintain satisfactory standards.
At the meeting of the convention, it was decided to revise the USP every 5 years while maintaining the use of periodic supplements. The first United States Pharmacopeial Convention was composed exclusively of physicians. By , the USP was so nearly in the hands of pharmacists that vigorous efforts were required to revive interest in it among physicians. The present constitution and bylaws of the United States Pharmacopeial Convention provide for accredited delegates representing educational institutions, professional and scientific organizations, divisions of governmental bodies, non—United States international organizations and pharmacopeial bodies, persons who possess special scientific competence or knowledge of emerging technologies, and public members 2.
Of the eight elected members of the board of trustees, at least two must be representatives of the medical sciences, two others must be representatives of the pharmaceutical sciences, one must be a public member, and three shall serve without restriction concerning their affiliation. After the appearance of the first USP, the art and science of both pharmacy and medicine changed remarkably.
Before , drugs to treat disease had been the same for centuries. The USP of reflected the fact that the apothecary of that day was competent at collecting and identifying botanical drugs and preparing from them the mixtures and preparations required by the physician.
The individual pharmacist seemed fulfilled as he applied his total art to the creation of elegant pharmaceutical preparations from crude botanical materials. It was a time that would never be seen again because of the impending upsurge in technologic capabilities and the steady development of the basic sciences, particularly synthetic organic chemistry.
The second half of the 19th century brought great and far-reaching changes. The industrial revolution was in full swing in the United States.
The steam engine, which used water power to turn mills that powdered crude botanical drugs, was replaced by the gas, diesel, or electric motor. New machinery was substituted for the old whenever possible, and often machinery from other industries was adapted to the special needs of pharmaceutical manufacturing. Mixers from the baking industry, centrifugal machines from the laundry industry, and sugarcoating pans from the candy industry were a INDD 10 few examples of improvisations.
Production increased rapidly, but the new industry had to wait for the scientific revolution before it could claim newer and better drugs for mankind. A symbiosis between science and the advancing technology was needed. By , the industrial manufacture of chemicals and pharmaceutical products had become well established in this country, and the pharmacist was relying heavily on commercial sources for drug supply.
Synthetic organic chemistry began to have its influence on drug therapy. The isolation of some active constituents of plant drugs led to the knowledge of their chemical structure.
From this arose methods of synthetically duplicating the same structures, as well as manipulating molecular structure to produce organic chemicals yet undiscovered in nature. In , the synthesis of salicylic acid from phenol inaugurated the synthesis of a group of analgesic compounds including acetylsalicylic acid aspirin , which was introduced into medicine in Among other chemicals synthesized for the first time were sleep-producing derivatives of barbituric acid called barbiturates.
This new source of drugs—synthetic organic chemistry—welcomed the turn into the 20th century. Until this time, drugs created through the genius of the synthetic organic chemist relieved a host of maladies, but none had been found to be curative—none, that is, until , when arsphenamine, a specific agent against syphilis, was introduced to medical science.
This was the start of an era of chemotherapy, an era in which the diseases of humans became curable through the use of specific chemical agents.
The concepts, discoveries, and inspirational work that led mankind to this glorious period are credited to Paul Ehrlich, the German bacteriologist who together with a Japanese colleague, Sahachiro Hata, discovered arsphenamine. Today many of our drugs originate in the flask of the synthetic organic chemist.
The advancement of science, both basic and applied, led to drugs of a more complex nature and to more of them. The standards advanced by the USP were more than ever needed to protect the public by ensuring the purity and uniformity of drugs. To serve as a therapeutic guide to the medical profession, its scope, then as now, was restricted to drugs of established therapeutic merit. Because of strict selectivity, many drugs and formulas that were accepted and used by the medical profession were not granted admission to early revisions of the USP.
As a type of protest, and in keeping with the original objectives of the APhA to standardize drugs and formulas, certain pharmacists, with the sanction of their national organization, prepared a formulary containing many of the popular drugs and formulas denied admission to the USP. The first edition was published in under the title National Formulary of Unofficial Preparations 3. Thus the two publications became official compendia. Among other things, the law required that whenever the designation USP or NF was used or implied on drug labeling, the products must conform to the physical and chemical standards set forth in the compendium monograph.
The early editions of the NF served mainly as a convenience to practicing pharmacists by providing uniform names of drugs and preparations and working directions for the small-scale manufacture of popular pharmaceutical preparations prescribed by physicians. After that date, new editions appeared every 5 years, with supplements issued periodically as necessary.
Revisions are available annually in hard copy and as online editions, including twice-yearly supplements and update notices on the USP Web site. Monographs for drug substances, dietary supplements, dosage forms, and compounded preparations are contained in the USP sections of the combined compendium whereas monographs for pharmaceutical excipients are contained in the NF section. Presently, USP standards are used in more than countries worldwide.
The standards advanced by the USP and the NF are put to active use by all members of the health care industry who share the responsibility and enjoy the public's trust for ensuring the availability of quality drugs and pharmaceutical products and preparations. The USP-NF is used by pharmacists, physicians, dentists, veterinarians, nurses, producers, and suppliers of bulk chemicals for use in drug production; large and small manufacturers of pharmaceutical products; drug procurement officers of various private and public health agencies and institutions; drug regulatory and enforcement agencies; and others.
USP and NF Monographs The USP and NF adopt standards for drug substances, pharmaceutical ingredients, and dosage forms reflecting the best in the current practices of medicine and pharmacy and provide suitable tests and assay procedures for demonstrating compliance with these standards.
In fulfilling this function, the compendia become legal documents, every statement of which must be of a high degree of clarity and specificity. In the United States, a drug with a name recognized in the USP-NF must comply with compendial identity standards or be deemed adulterated, misbranded, or both. In addition, to avoid being deemed misbranded, drugs recognized in the USP-NF also must comply with compendial standards for packaging and labeling. Many pharmaceutical products on the market, especially combinations of therapeutic ingredients, are not described in formulation or dosage form monographs in the official compendia.
However, the individual components in these products are described in monographs in the compendia, in supplements to the compendia, or in drug applications for marketing approved by the U. An example of a typical monograph for a drug substance appearing in the USP is shown in Figure 1.
This monograph demonstrates the type of information that appears for organic medicinal agents. The initial part of the monograph consists of the official title generic or nonproprietary name of the drug substance. This is followed by its graphic or structural formula, empirical formula, molecular weight, established chemical names, and the drug's Chemical Abstracts Service CAS registry number.
Appearing next in the monograph is a statement of chemical purity, a cautionary statement that reflects the toxic nature of the agent, packaging and storage recommendations, and chemical and physical tests, and the prescribed method of assay to substantiate the identification and purity of the chemical.
HPUS is used by pharmacists and homeopathists as well as by law enforcement agencies that must ensure the quality of homeopathic drugs. In essence, the basis of homeopathy is the law of similars, or that like cures like: that is, a drug that produces symptoms of the illness in healthy persons will also be capable of treating those same symptoms and curing the disease. The HPUS is essential for pharmacists who prepare drugs to be used in the practice of homeopathy.
It is intended as a recommendation to national pharmacopeial revision committees to modify their pharmacopeias according to international standards. It has no legal authority, only the respect and recognition accorded it by the participating countries in their effort to provide acceptable drug standards on an international basis. The first volume of the IP was published in It has been revised periodically since that time.
Solution B: Methanol Mobile phase: See the gradient table below. Identification—Infrared absorption K Standard solution: Mobile phase: Acetonitrile and Diluent Standard solution: 1.
Sample solution: 1. Note—Use this solution within 6 hours. Resolution: NLT 1. The chromatographic system resolves two penicilloic acids from each other. Individual impurities: See Impurity Table 1. Total impurities: NMT 5. Label all other Amoxicillin to indicate that it is to be used in the manufacture of nonparenteral drugs only. C8H12N2O3S C16H21N3O6S Selection of the pharmacopeia is usually based on geographic proximity, a common heritage or language, or a similarity of drugs and pharmaceutical products used.
The Mexican pharmacopeia Farmacopea de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos and the Brazilian Pharmacopeia Farmacopeia Brasilieira are the only other actively maintained pharmacopeias in this hemisphere. The manufacturer must rigidly adhere to these initial standards to maintain product quality and continued FDA approval for marketing.
Included here are standards pertaining to development, production, quality assurance QA , quality control QC , detection of defective products, quality management QM , and other issues, Industry compliance with the standards is voluntary.
However, many firms find it advantageous to their business to comply with ISO standards and to be identified within their industry as having an internationally recognized QM system. Some companies choose to become ISO certified through a rigorous evaluation and accreditation process 8. The law required drugs marketed interstate to comply with their claimed standards for strength, purity, and quality. Manufacturers' claims of therapeutic benefit were not regulated until , when the passage of the Sherley Amendment specifically prohibited false claims of therapeutic effects, declaring such products misbranded.
The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of The need for additional drug standards was tragically demonstrated in The thennew wonder drug sulfanilamide, which was not soluble in most common pharmaceutical solvents of the day, was prepared and distributed by an otherwise reputable manufacturer as an elixir using as the solvent diethylene glycol, a highly toxic agent used in antifreeze solutions.
Before the product could be removed from the market, more than persons died of diethylene glycol poisoning. The necessity for proper product formulation and thorough pharmacologic and toxicologic testing of the therapeutic agent, pharmaceutical ingredients, and the completed product was painfully recognized.
It became the responsibility of the FDA to either grant or deny permission to manufacture and distribute a new product after reviewing the applicant's filed data on the product's ingredients, methods of assay and quality standards, formulation and manufacturing processes, preclinical animal, tissue, or cell culture studies including pharmacology and toxicology, and clinical trials on human subjects.
Although the Act of required manufactured pharmaceutical products to be safe for human use, it did not require them to be efficacious. Subsequent legislation, as described later in this chapter, requires that a drug approved for marketing in the United States be both safe and effective for the condition for which it is intended.
Until that time, all drugs could be purchased over the counter by consumers. Medications deemed safe enough by the FDA for self-treatment are made available to consumers for direct purchase whereas medications requiring professional diagnosis for their safe and effective use must be dispensed only upon a valid prescription or institutional medication order.
INDD 16 dispensing. However, their legal status may be changed to OTC, albeit usually at lower recommended dosage, should they later be considered useful and safe enough for the lay person's discretionary use.
Examples of such drugs include ibuprofen, ketoprofen, cimetidine, loratadine, and ranitidine. According to the Durham-Humphrey Amendment, prescriptions for legend drugs may not be refilled dispensed again after the initial filling of the prescription without the express consent of the prescriber. The refill status of prescriptions for certain legend drugs known to be subject to public abuse was further regulated with the passage of the Drug Abuse Control Amendments of and then by the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of A new synthetic drug, thalidomide, recommended as a sedative and tranquilizer, was being sold OTC in Europe.
It was a drug of special interest because of its apparent lack of toxicity even at extreme dosage levels. It was hoped that it would replace the barbiturates as a sedative and therefore prevent the frequent deaths caused from accidental and intentional barbiturate overdosage.
A pharmaceutical company was awaiting FDA approval for marketing in the United States when reports of a toxic effect of the drug's use in Europe began to appear. Thalidomide given to women during pregnancy produced birth defects, most notably phocomelia, an arrested development of the limbs of the affected newborn. Thousands of children were affected to various extents 9. Some were born without arms or legs and others, with partially formed limbs. The more fortunate were born with only disfigurations of the nose, eyes, and ears.
The most severely afflicted died of malformation of the heart or gastrointestinal tract. This drug catastrophe spurred the Congress to strengthen the existing laws regarding new drugs. The purpose of the enactment was to ensure a greater degree of safety for approved drugs, and manufacturers were now required to prove a drug both safe and effective before it would be granted FDA approval for marketing. Under the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act as amended, the sponsor of a new drug is required to file an investigational new drug application IND with the FDA before the drug may be clinically tested on human subjects.
Only after carefully designed and structured human clinical trials, in which the drug is evaluated for safety and effectiveness, may the drug's sponsor file an NDA seeking approval for marketing. The FDA was given authority to issue good manufacturing practice GMP guidelines governing how drugs were to be manufactured, access to facilities for inspection, and jurisdiction over prescription drug advertising.
The requirements for these and other submissions to the FDA are presented in Chapter 2. Interestingly, WHO now considers thalidomide to be the standard treatment for the fever and painful skin lesions associated with erythema nodosum leprosum ENL in patients with leprosy and the FDA has approved its use for this purpose.
Further, research into potential uses for thalidomide has determined that it is effective in the treatment of multiple myeloma, a blood and bone marrow cancer, and shows promise in certain inflammatory diseases, and in Kaposi sarcoma, a cancer of the blood vessel walls mostly found in people with HIV Under its provisions, the Drug Abuse Control Amendments of , the Harrison Narcotic Act of , and other related laws governing INDD 17 17 stimulants, depressants, narcotics, and hallucinogens were repealed and replaced by regulatory framework now administered by the Drug Enforcement Administration DEA in the Department of Justice.
These schedules provide for decreasing levels of control, from schedule I to schedule V. In this category are agents including heroin, lysergic acid diethylamide LSD , mescaline, peyote, methaqualone, marijuana, and similar items. Any nonmedical substance that is being abused can be placed in this category. In this category are morphine, cocaine, methamphetamine, amobarbital, and other such drugs. In this category are specified quantities of codeine, hydrocodone, and similar agents.
In this category are specified quantities of difenoxin, diazepam, oxazepam, and similar agents. Included in this category are specified quantities of dihydrocodeine, diphenoxylate, and similar agents. There are many risk factors that must be evaluated, including pregnancy. This was based on a similar system that was introduced in Sweden just 1 year earlier. The FDA has established five categories that can be used to estimate the potential of a systemically absorbed drug for causing birth defects.
The reliability of the documentation is the key differentiation factor among the categories for determining the risk-versusbenefit ratio. Birth defects are the leading cause of infant mortality in the United States. Two important factors to consider when assessing the teratogenic potential of a medication are the stage of pregnancy at which the exposure occurred and the amount of medication taken.
It is critical to evaluate each exposure on a case-by-case basis in order to give an accurate risk assessment. Some of the known, possible, and unlikely human teratogens are listed in Table 1. Unknown February 12, at PM. Unknown October 5, at PM. Newer Post Home.Thank you for interesting in our services. We are a non-profit group that run this website to share documents. We need your help to maintenance this website. Please help us to share our service with your friends. Share Embed Donate. This book is protected by copyright. No part dosave this book may be 1t0h or transmitted in any form or by any means, including as photocopies or frfe or other electronic copies, or utilized by any frde storage and retrieval system without written permission from the copyright owner, except ansels pharmaceutical dosage forms 10th edition pdf free download brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews. Materials appearing in this book prepared by individuals as part of their official duties as U. Allen, Jr. Ansel, Howard C. Title: Pharmaceutical dosage forms and drug delivery systems. Dosage Forms. Drug Delivery Systems. However, the authors, editors, and publisher are not responsible for errors or omissions or for any consequences from application of the information in this book and make xosage warranty, expressed downnload implied, with respect to the currency, completeness, or accuracy of the contents of the publication. Application of this information ansels pharmaceutical dosage forms 10th edition pdf free download a particular ansels pharmaceutical dosage forms 10th edition pdf free download remains the professional responsibility of the practitioner; the clinical treatments described and recommended may not be considered absolute and universal recommendations. The authors, editors, and publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accordance with the current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any change in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new or infrequently employed drug. Some drugs and medical devices presented in this publication have Food and Drug Administration FDA clearance for limited use in restricted research ansels pharmaceutical dosage forms 10th edition pdf free download. It is the responsibility of the health care provider to ascertain the FDA status of each drug or device planned for use in their clinical practice. To purchase additional copies of this book, call our customer angry birds seasons online game free play no download department at or ansels pharmaceutical dosage forms 10th edition pdf free download orders to International customers should call An integrated presentation is used in this textbook to demonstrate the interrelationships between pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical principles, product design, formulation, manufacture, compounding, and the clinical application of the various dosage forms ansels pharmaceutical dosage forms 10th edition pdf free download pharmaceutial care. Regulations and standards governing the manufacturing and compounding of pharmaceuticals are pharmaceutiical presented. As has been the hallmark of this fofms since its first edition more than 40 years ago, each chapter is written at a level consistent with the requirements of students being introduced to this area of study. Ansel's Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms and Drug Delivery Systems, tenth Delivery Systems, tenth edition, have access to the following additional publ/pdf/PLAWpublpdf. sional and lay public free from the restrictions. Pages·· MB·3, Downloads·New! Ansel's Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms and Drug Delivery Systems, Ninth Edition, includes act. Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms and Drug Delivery Systems, Ninth Edition, Web site at All advertising of drug products. The drug listing program enables the FDA to devsmash.online If excess drug is present, the quantity of free acid in solution is maximized and constant because. Ansel's Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms and Drug Delivery devsmash.online Download INDD 9 11/29/ PM 10 SECTION I • Drugs, Drug Dosage Forms, And The first edition was published in of the health care industry who share This shortened name is the chemical's and should be free from conflict with. Ansel's Pharmaceutical. Dosage Forms and. Drug Delivery Systems. NINTH EDITION. Loyd V. Allen, Jr., PhD. Professor and Chair Emeritus. Department of. Dosage Forms and Drug Delivery Systems 10th Edition PDF It is really very nice blog which describes how to Free Home Delivery. Get this from a library! Ansel's pharmaceutical dosage forms and drug delivery systems (10th edition). [Loyd V Allen, Jr.; Howard C Ansel]. Ansel's Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms and Drug Delivery Systems, 10th devsmash.online - Google Drive. Ansel's Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms and Drug Delivery Systems Tenth, North American The 10th edition features a dynamic new full color design, new coverage of Get your Kindle here, or download a FREE Kindle Reading App. pharmaceutical dosage forms pdf. Out of these cookies, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are as essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. Linked Data More info about Linked Data. Just a moment while we sign you in to your Goodreads account. 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