a song of ice and fire wikipedia the free encyclopedia

a song of ice and fire wikipedia the free encyclopedia

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Make sure to sign up at A Forum of Ice and Fire. Retrieved March 17, Archived from the original on June 11, April 10, Archived from the original on April 16, Retrieved April 11, Retrieved November 25, October 29, Archived from the original on December 27, Retrieved April 17, Archived from the original on March 30, Martin and the Rise of Fantasy".

Archived from the original on January 20, Martin explains why we'll never meet any gods in A Song of Ice and Fire ".

Archived from the original on July 28, Archived from the original on June 12, May 19, Archived from the original on July 3, R Martin". Retrieved April 5, The Washington Post. Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on June 2, Archived from the original PDF on March 6, Retrieved February 1, Archived from the original on November 6, July 26, USA Today.

June 11, Archived from the original on January 5, Archived from the original on February 21, Archived from the original on April 29, Archived from the original on April 18, Martin is our Author of the Year". The Christian Science Monitor. July 22, Archived from the original on February 24, Retrieved January 16, Archived from the original on February 19, Retrieved March 25, October 6, Archived from the original on September 3, Archived from the original on September 13, March 4, Martin joins Kindle million-seller club".

Archived from the original on December 28, January 16, Archived from the original on January 21, February 19, Retrieved May 1, Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on November 28, Linked from sfwa. Archived from the original on March 3, Archived from the original on December 2, Archived from the original on April 13, June 16, Archived from the original on June 22, Retrieved June 18, Retrieved September 3, Archived from the original on December 5, Retrieved November 5, Martin's Adventures in Comics Part 1".

Archived from the original on February 1, Archived from the original on April 7, Retrieved February 14, July 9, Archived from the original on January 25, Retrieved July 12, July 24, Retrieved November 19, Madonna's Italian-Catholic background and her relationship with her parents are reflected in the album Like a Prayer. They were all incredibly funny She studied the screwball comedies of the s, particularly those of Lombard, in preparation for the film Who's That Girl.

The video for "Vogue" recreated the style of Hollywood glamour photographs, in particular those by Horst P. Horst , and imitated the poses of Marlene Dietrich , Carole Lombard, and Rita Hayworth , while the lyrics referred to many of the stars who had inspired her, including Bette Davis , described by Madonna as an idol. Stephanie Zacharek, critic for Time magazine, stated that, "[Madonna] seems wooden and unnatural as an actress, and it's tough to watch, because she's clearly trying her damnedest.

Influences also came to her from the art world, most notably through the works of Mexican artist Frida Kahlo.

Madonna is dedicated to Kabbalah , and in she adopted the name Esther which in Persian means "star". Madonna defended her studies, saying: "It would be less controversial if I joined the Nazi Party", and that her involvement with the Kabbalah is "not hurting anybody".

In The Madonna Companion biographers Allen Metz and Carol Benson noted that more than any other recent pop artist, Madonna had used MTV and music videos to establish her popularity and enhance her recorded work. Cultural critic Mark C. Taylor in his book Nots felt that the postmodern art form par excellence is video and the reigning "queen of video" is Madonna. He further asserted that "the most remarkable creation of MTV is Madonna. The responses to Madonna's excessively provocative videos have been predictably contradictory.

Madonna's initial music videos reflected her American and Hispanic mixed street style combined with a flamboyant glamor. Academics noted that with her videos, Madonna was subtly reversing the usual role of male as the dominant sex. The video included scenes of an African-American church choir, Madonna being attracted to a statue of a black saint, and singing in front of burning crosses.

This mix of the sacred and the profane upset the Vatican and resulted in the Pepsi commercial withdrawal. Madonna's emergence occurred during the advent of MTV; Chris Nelson from The New York Times spoke of pop artists like Madonna saying, "MTV, with its almost exclusively lip-synched videos, ushered in an era in which average music fans might happily spend hours a day, every day, watching singers just mouth the words. He added, "Artists like Madonna and Janet Jackson set new standards for showmanship, with concerts that included not only elaborate costumes and precision-timed pyrotechnics but also highly athletic dancing.

These effects came at the expense of live singing. To allow for greater movement while dancing and singing, Madonna was one of the earliest adopters of hands-free radio-frequency headset microphones, with the headset fastened over the ears or the top of the head, and the microphone capsule on a boom arm that extended to the mouth.

Because of her prominent usage, the microphone design came to be known as the "Madonna mic". While her big-screen performances are panned, her live performances are critical successes. Author Elin Diamond explained that reciprocally, the fact that images from Madonna's videos can be recreated in a live setting enhances the realism of the original videos. Thus her live performances have become the means by which mediatized representations are naturalized.

Various music journalists, critical theorists, and authors have deemed Madonna the most influential female recording artist of all time. Madonna was everywhere; in the almighty music television channels, 'radio formulas', magazine covers and even in bookshops.

A pop dialectic, never seen since The Beatles 's reign, which allowed her to keep on the edge of tendency and commerciality. When The Beatles hit America, they changed the paradigm of performer from solo act to band. Madonna changed it back—with an emphasis on the female.

She certainly raised the standards of all of them She redefined what the parameters were for female performers. Madonna's use of sexual imagery has benefited her career and catalyzed public discourse on sexuality and feminism. Her attitudes and opinions on sex, nudity, style and sexuality forced the public to sit up and take notice.

But that hardly mattered to her. Madonna holds the record for the most number-ones on all Billboard charts with a total of number-ones, including 12 on the Billboard Hot and 45 on the Hot Dance Club Songs. She has also scored 38 top-ten singles on the Hot , more than any other artist in history.

Madonna Louise Veronica Ciccone Catholic confirmation name [ 1 ]. Singer songwriter actress businesswoman author director record producer philanthropist dancer. Sean Penn m. Pop electronic rock. Sire Warner Bros. Maverick Live Nation Interscope. Breakfast Club Emmy. See also: Madonna videography.

See also: List of awards and nominations received by Madonna and Records and achievements of Madonna. Main articles: Madonna albums discography and Madonna singles discography. Main article: Madonna filmography. Main article: List of Madonna concert tours. Main article: Madonna fashion brands. Triumph, Inc. Madonna Louise Veronica Ciccone et al". Retrieved February 27, Madonna Louise Ciccone et al". RFC Express. October 28, Retrieved February 26, Retrieved April 13, The Daily Telegraph.

July 26, Retrieved June 9, The Guardian. Retrieved May 29, Hosted by Paula Zahn. People in the News. Retrieved on April 22, Hosted by Jim Wallasky.

The History Channel. Rolling Stone. Retrieved April 29, Rovi Corporation. Retrieved March 19, Retrieved February 24, Retrieved September 2, MTV News. Retrieved January 12, The Sunday Times.

Today's Zaman. November 30, Retrieved January 28, Retrieved March 12, February 26, The New York Times. Retrieved April 25, Retrieved April 23, Retrieved May 28, May 21, Retrieved May 21, Archived from the original on July 15, March 2, Retrieved March 2, The Sports Report. We found out! September 19, You Can Play it Right Now". Retrieved May 31, Retrieved June 3, April 17, George R.

Martin's Official Website. Retrieved July 24, December 6, Archived from the original on April 19, Dark Sword Miniatures Website. August 13, Retrieved August 28, HammerFall releases. Nuclear Blast. Namespaces Book Talk. Views Read Edit View history. It was produced as an extensive collaboration between George R.

Would an article about Jaime Lannister explain why he really killed the Mad King, even though that is a secret revelation only given in the third novel? The Eyrie's dungeons, known as "sky cells", are left open to the sky on one side and have sloping floors that put prisoners in danger of slipping or rolling off the edge. Executions in the Eyrie are carried out via the Moon Door, which opens from the high hall onto a foot drop.

The Eyrie is made of pale stone and primarily decorated with the blue and white colors of House Arryn. Elegant details provide warmth and comfort through plentiful fireplaces, carpets, and luxurious fabrics.

Many of the chambers have been described to be warm and comfortable, with magnificent views of the Vale, the Mountains of the Moon, or the waterfall. The Maiden's Tower is the easternmost of the seven slender towers, so all the Vale can be seen from its windows and balconies.

The apartments of the Lady of the Eyrie open over a small garden planted with blue flowers and ringed by white towers, containing grass and scattered statuary, with the central statue of a weeping woman believed to be Alyssa Arryn, around low, flowering shrubs.

The lord's chambers have doors of solid oak, and plush velvet curtains covering windows of small rhomboid panes of glass. The High Hall has a blue silk carpet leading to the carved weirwood thrones of the Lord and Lady Arryn. The floors and walls are of milk-white marble veined with blue. Daylight enters down through high narrow arched windows along the eastern wall, and there are some fifty high iron sconces where torches may be lit.

Lysa refused to align herself with any of the claimants during the War of the Five Kings, but eventually pretends to a possible alliance with House Lannister after Lord Petyr Baelish agrees to marry her. Later Baelish kills Lysa after she attempts to murder her niece, Sansa Stark.

For the CGI compositions of the Vale of Arryn in the TV series, as seen in the establishing shot of the Eyrie and from the sky cells, the visual effects team used images and textures from the Greek rock formations of Meteora. Initially they had been considering the Zhangjiajie Mountains in China, but because the landscape base plates were shot in Northern Ireland, using Meteora resulted a better option.

Martin acknowledged that the set differed significantly from its presentation in the books: "In the books, the room is long and rectangular. But [The Paint Hall soundstage] had essentially a square space, which they chose to put a round hall in, with a staircase curving up to a throne that was high above.

The Westerlands are the Westerosi lands to the west of the Riverlands and north of the Reach. People of this region are often called "Westermen. The Westerlands are rich in precious metals, mostly gold, which is the source of their wealth. A stronghold carved from a mountain overlooking the harbor city of Lannisport and the sea beyond, Casterly Rock is the ancestral seat of House Lannister.

According to popular legend, the hero known as Lann the Clever tricked the Casterlys into giving up the Rock, and took it for himself. The Rock is renowned as the wealthiest region due to its abundance of gold mining resources, and it is one of the strongest castles of the Seven Kingdoms.

As of A Dance with Dragons , the narrative has not actually taken place in Casterly Rock, yet descriptions of it have been offered by the Lannisters in the POV chapters. West of Casterly Rock is the coastal city of Lannisport. A busy port under the governance of the Lannisters of Casterly Rock, Lannisport thrives as a protected and wealthy city. The city is also home to many lesser Lannisters and other people with similar surnames, such as Lannys.

Martin stated on his blog that he drew inspiration for Casterly Rock from the Rock of Gibraltar. After the last Gardener King was killed on the Field of Fire, the Tyrells surrendered Highgarden to Aegon and were rewarded with both the castle and the position of overlords of the Reach. The wealth and power of the Reach comes from their bountiful harvests of the most sought-after wines and foods. During times of war, the lengthy distance of the Reach and its abundance of foods protects their inhabitants from initial famine and sickness.

In a significant political maneuver during the civil war in Westeros and the War of the Five Kings, House Tyrell provides the starving populace of King's Landing with hundreds of carts of food, ensuring the positive image of House Tyrell foremost, and the alliance for the Iron Throne with House Baratheon as secondary. However, the Tyrells were responsible for the starvation in the first place, as part of their plan to help Renly usurp the Iron Throne. The most prominent city in the Reach is Oldtown.

It is the oldest city in Westeros, home to the Maester's Citadel, and the previous seat of the Faith of the Seven. Oldtown is one of the largest cities in Westeros and is by far the oldest, built by the First Men before the Andal Invasion. It survived the invasion by welcoming the Andals rather than resisting them. The city is located in the southwestern part of Westeros, at the mouth of the River Honeywine, where it opens onto Whispering Sound and the Sunset Sea beyond.

Oldtown is primarily known as the location of the Citadel, home of the order of Maesters who serve as councillors, doctors, scientists, and postmasters for the Seven Kingdoms. Aegon the Conqueror's reign is dated from his entrance into the city of Oldtown and his acknowledgment as king by the High Septon. Oldtown is the second most important port in the Seven Kingdoms after King's Landing: trading ships from the Summer Islands, the Free Cities, the eastern cities, and the rest of Westeros constantly crowd into its harbors.

The city itself is described as stunningly beautiful. Many rivers and canals crisscross its cobbled streets, and breathtaking stone mansions are common. The city lacks the squalor of King's Landing, which usurped its position as the preeminent city of Westeros. Oldtown is ruled from the Hightower by House Hightower. Originally kings in their own right, they later swore fealty to the Gardeners of Highgarden, and became vassals of the Tyrells after the Conquest.

The Hightowers are known for their loyalty and stalwartness. The current ruler of the city is Lord Leyton Hightower. Oldtown remained aloof from the War of the Five Kings , but late in the war the Ironborn under King Euron Greyjoy launched a massive raid along the coast, conquering the Shield Islands and parts of the Arbor before trying to blockade the mouth of the Honeywine.

An attempt to attack the city harbor was repulsed by the city's defenders. Oldtown remains under threat from the Ironborn. In the east they are bordered by Shipbreaker Bay and the Dornish Sea to the south.

Before Aegon's conquest they were ruled by the Storm Kings, and afterwards by House Baratheon , bastard relatives to the Targaryens. The Dornish Marches are located within this region, and were common battlegrounds between the Stormlands and Dorne until Aegon joined the Seven Kingdoms.

Storm's End is the seat of House Baratheon and, before them, the ancestral seat of the Storm Kings extending back many thousands of years. According to legend, the first Storm King in the age of the First Men was Durran, who married Elenei, the daughter of the sea god and the goddess of the wind. In a rage her parents sent vast storms to shatter his keep and kill his wedding guests and family; whereupon Durran declared war against the gods and raised several castles over Shipbreaker Bay, each larger and more formidable than the last.

Finally, the seventh castle stayed in place and resisted the storms. Some believe the Children of the Forest took a hand in its construction; others suggest that Brandon Stark, the builder of the Wall, advised Durran on its construction.

The truth of the matter is unknown. Storm's End has never fallen to either siege or storm. The wall consists of a double course of stones with an inner core of sand and rubble.

The wall is smooth and curving, the stones so well placed that the wind cannot enter. The castle itself consists of one huge drum tower crowned with formidable battlements, and so large that it can comfortably contain stables, barracks , armory and lord's chambers in the same structure.

Although never taken in battle, Storm's End has endured several sieges and battles in recent history. During the War of the Usurper, Storm's End was besieged for a year by the host of Lord Mace Tyrell, who commanded the landward forces, while Paxter Redwyne's fleet of the Arbor kept the castle cut off by sea.

Stannis Baratheon , commanding the defense, refused to yield and his men were reduced to eating rats. A smuggler named Davos ran the blockade to resupply the castle and Stannis rewarded him by knighting him and giving him lands, thus founding House Seaworth, but he also cut off the fingertips of his left hand as punishment for all his previous smuggling. After the war, Stannis was furious when his brother Robert, now king, gave the castle to their younger brother Renly and placed Stannis in command of Dragonstone.

This led to many years of bitterness on Stannis' part. When the castellan, Cortnay Penrose, refused to yield even after Renly's death, he was killed by Stannis' ally, the priestess Melisandre, and the castle surrendered.

Later, the castle was besieged by a strong army under Mace Tyrell, but he abandoned the siege after a few weeks to return to King's Landing after the arrest of his daughter Margaery by the High Septon. To attract support, Aegon plans to conquer Storm's End and raise the banner of House Targaryen above the battlements. The scene where Stannis' red priestess Melisandre gave birth to a shadow creature was filmed in the Cushendun Caves , also in Northern Ireland. The Targaryen kings consolidated this as one of the nine regions of Westeros, after their conquest of the Seven Kingdoms, from sparsely populated pieces of the Riverlands and Stormlands.

The Crownlands form the entire coastline of Blackwater Bay, and include the original Targaryen homeland on the island of Dragonstone, at the Narrow Sea entrance to Blackwater Bay. Besides King's Landing, which is the largest city in Westeros, the Crownlands include many towns and castles. The illegitimate children born in the Crownlands are given the surname Waters.

Dragonstone was once the westernmost outpost of the ancient Freehold of Valyria.

Madonna Louise Ciccone [ 3 ] Lua error in package. She achieved popularity by pushing the boundaries of lyrical content in mainstream popular music and imagery in her music videoswhich became a fixture on MTV. Madonna is known for reinventing both her music and image, and for maintaining her autonomy within the a song of ice and fire wikipedia the free encyclopedia industry. Music critics have acclaimed her musical productions which have also a song of ice and fire wikipedia the free encyclopedia known to induce controversy. Often referred to as the " Queen of Pop ", she is cited as an influence among other artists around the world. Records in and released her self-titled debut album the following year. She followed it with a series of commercially successful albums, including the Grammy Award winners Ray of Light and Confessions on a Dance Floor Throughout her career, she has written and produced most of her songs, with many of them reaching number one on the record charts, including " Into the Groove ", " Papa Don't Preach ", " Like a Prayer ", " Vogue ", " Frozen ", " Music ", " Hung Up ", and " 4 Minutes ". Madonna's popularity was further a song of ice and fire wikipedia the free encyclopedia by her film roles; she won a Golden Globe Award for Best Actress for Evita while most of her other films have been panned by critics. Her other ventures include fashion design, writing children's books, and filmmaking. She has been acclaimed as a businesswoman, particularly after she founded entertainment company Maverick including the label Maverick Records in as a joint venture with Time Warner. Madonna has sold more than million records worldwide and is recognized as the best-selling female recording artist of all time by Guinness World Records. Monsters inc full movie online free to the Recording Industry Association of America RIAAshe is the best-selling female rock artist of the 20th century and the second best-selling female artist in the United Stateswith Billboard ranked her at number two, behind only The Beatleson the Billboard Hot All-Time Top Artists, making her the most successful solo artist in the history of American singles chart. The magazine also declared her as the top-touring female artist of all time. Since Madonna had the same name as her mother, family members called her a song of ice and fire wikipedia the free encyclopedia Nonni". A song of ice and fire wikipedia the free encyclopedia has two elder brothers, Anthony born and Martin bornand three younger siblings, Paula bornChristopher bornand Melanie born Upon a song of ice and fire wikipedia the free encyclopedia confirmation in she adopted Veronica as an additional confirmation name. Months before her mother died from breast cancer, Madonna noticed changes in her behavior and personality, although she a history of western art 5th edition free download not understand the reason. Madonna later acknowledged that she had not grasped the concept of her mother dying. Madonna turned to her paternal grandmother in the hope of finding some solace and some form of her mother in her. a song of ice and fire wikipedia the free encyclopedia World of A Song of Ice and Fire. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Jump to navigation Jump to search. For the A Song of Ice. Book:A Song of Ice and Fire. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Jump to navigation Jump to search. This page. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Jump to navigation Jump to search. A Song of Ice and Fire, the series of fantasy novels by George R. R. Martin, has formed the. The Wiki of Ice and Fire is dedicated to the A Song of Ice and Fire and Game of Thrones series. It is a fan-curated community website. The World of Ice and Fire is a history book, compiled by Maester Yandel. found it difficult to simply present an objective compendium/encyclopedia of events. Dec 18, - Characters in A Song of Ice and Fire - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Richard Burchett - Sanctuary () contrasted - A Song of Ice and Fire - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Take a short survey and help us improve Wikipedia she has written and produced most of her songs, with many of them reaching number. 4/30/ Vanishing twin Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Maelys the Monstrous, the Last Blackfyre pretender from "A Song of Ice and Fire". June 16, Archived from the original on June 15, Wikiquote Collection of quotations. December 2, Archived from the original on May 12, November On the other hand, Martin noted the challenge to avoid a situation like the finale of the TV series Lost , which left some fans disappointed by deviating too far from their own theories and desires. A Song of Ice and Fire The Complete Guide This is a Wikipedia book , a collection of Wikipedia articles that can be easily saved, imported by an external electronic rendering service, and ordered as a printed book. Archived from the original on October 21, George R. a song of ice and fire wikipedia the free encyclopedia