Karunakaran M. The paper deals with the brief summary of the methods and approaches in language teaching from Grammar-translation method to Communicative Language Teaching. It also looks the debate on post-method pedagogy. Brief Summary of Methods in English Language Teaching According to Larsen-Freeman x-xi , there are at least five ways that the study of methods is invaluable.
Methods serve as a foil for reflection that can help teachers in bringing to conscious awareness the thinking that underlies their actions. A purpose of teacher education is to help teachers make their tacit explicit.
When teachers are exposed to methods and asked to reflect on their principles and actively engage with their techniques, they can become clearer about why they do what they do. They become aware of their own fundamental assumptions, values and beliefs.
By becoming clear on where they stand, teachers can choose to teach differently what they were taught. They are able to see why they are attracted to certain methods and may be able to argue against the imposition of a particular method by authorities 3. A knowledge of methods is a part of the knowledge base of teaching. With it, teachers join a community of practice Freeman, cited in Larsen-freeman, Being a community Dr.
Suresh Babu www. Decisions that teachers make are often affected by exigencies in the classroom rather than by methodological considerations. Saying that a particular method is practiced certainly does not give us the whole picture of what is happening in the classroom.
It has had different names and has been used by language teachers for many years. At one time it was also called the Classical Method since it was first used in the teaching of the classical languages, Latin and Greek. This method focuses on grammatical rules, memorization of vocabulary of various declensions and conjugations, translation of texts, doing written exercises Brown, In the nineteenth century the Classical method came to be known as the Grammar- Translation Method.
To this day, it is widely practiced in too many educational contexts. Prator and Celce-Murcia cited in Brown listed the major characteristics of Grammar Translation: a Classes are taught in the mother tongue, with little active use of the target language. Until recently, this method has been so stalwart among many competing models. It does not help learners enhance their communicative ability in the language. It is also remembered with distaste by thousands of school learners, for whom foreign language learning meant a tedious experience of memorizing endless lists of unusable rules and vocabulary.
Richards and Rodgers 1. The Direct Method became very popular when the Grammar-Translation Method was not found effective in preparing students to use the target language communicatively. Richards and Rodgers summarized the key principles of the Direct Method: a Classroom instruction was conducted exclusively in the target language.
The Direct method enjoyed its popularity at the beginning of the twentieth century. It was most widely accepted in private schools. Charles Berlitz developed this method, who never used the term Direct Method and chose instead to call his method the Berlitz Method in which Dr. Direct Method did not take well in public education, where the constraints of budget, classroom size, time, and teacher background made such a method difficult to use.
Moreover, it has been criticized for its weak theoretical foundations and has been more of a skill and personality of the teacher than of methodology itself Brown, It is basically an oral-based approach like the Direct Method. However, it differs from the Direct Method in many respects. First, while the Direct Method emphasizes vocabulary acquisition through exposure to its use in situations, the Audio-Lingual Method drills students in the use of grammatical sentence patterns.
Secondly, the Direct Method has a strong theoretical base in linguistics and psychology. Most of the principles of behavioral psychology Skinner, were incorporated into this method.
It is for this reason that the sentence patterns of the target language are thought to be acquired through conditions which mean to respond correctly to stimuli through shaping and reinforcement. Learners overcome the habits of their native language and form new habits in order to be target language speakers. A lot of detail is given on these double-manuals, which seem to have been quite similar to modern phrasebooks but with additions such as bilingual prayers, including the first EFL teacher we know by name, Gabriel Meurier although he probably mainly taught French.
The second chapter Refugiate in a Strange Country takes up the teaching of Huguenot refugees in more detail, with an examination of the lives and works of three refugee teachers of English although again they spent more time teaching French , Jacques Bellot, Claudius Holyband and John Florio. It includes the interesting idea that teachers of this period taught with translation because there was no analysis of English available that would have allowed them describe it all otherwise, perhaps an interesting parallel for the knowledge of the language and the use of translation all over the world for non-native and non-specialist teachers now.
Like the earlier double-manuals, language textbooks at this time were based on full imaginary dialogues containing the practical language people needed day to day, whether that be commercial vocabulary or language for day to day life.
It seems proverbs and sayings were standard at that time something that seems to carry on every time someone somewhere with no training tries to design an English course including, bizarrely, a list of the mystical meanings of plants and flowers. A History of the English Language. A History of the English Language The sociopolitics of English language teaching.
The earlier of the two, The French Schoolmaster, appeared in at more or less the time he entered the Sackville household, and the second, The French Littleton, was produced as che new textbook for his school in St. The Schoolmaster and the Littleton have much in common. They are both teaching manuais not linguistic studies, and they both make great use of dialogue work, The Schoolmaster another conscious echo of Ascham is organized rather differently from the Littleton, however, because it was intended as much for self-instruction as for class use.
The principal difference between the two books is that the linguistic information on pronunciation and grammar comes at the beginning of the Schoolmaster whereas in the Littleton it is put in an appendix at the back of the book. In most other respects the books are very similar, though the Schoolmaster has perhaps more of a social slant whereas the Littleton concentrates on commercial French. Both books contain lengthy vocabulary lists arranged in topic areas Holyband later collected these lists together and expanded them into his Dictionary French and English as well as proverbs and sayings.
They are not like dialogues in modern courses but much longer sequences of scenes and events that follow one another in quick succession. Clare Byrne puts it. Each episode contains cnough material for ong lesson — he worked very thoroughly and slowly — while the context keeps a situational thread running through from one lesson to the next.
School started at seven in the morning and finished at five in the afternoon with an hour off for lunch. One can almost see him bustling the children out of the door with all these reminders and afterthoughts following them down the draughty alleyways of St. They not only had their French lessons but also followed a regular Latin course which, it seems, Holyband left mostly to his assistant, or usher.
They were very young, about eight or nine years old, and the atmosphere of the school that comes across in the dialogue is youthful, exuberant, and high- spirited. In earlier episodes, a new boy arrives with his father and there is a discussion about fees, the equipment the boy needs, and so on.
In the extract, he breaks another rule by speaking English, which implies strongly that Holyband used French as a medium of instruction in the class. Suddenly, the scene switches to another boy, Peter. The extract begins as he is leaving home already very late. Next come the excuses for being late, which are also presented in a tabular form, this time for the more traditional purpose of vocabulary teaching. There are two further examples on pp. Most of the text deals with the late arrival of Peter.
At the bottom of p. Each episode provided the basic material for a lesson. The text was read aloud and repeated until the pupils had a thorough geasp of the pronunciation and could produce the sentences fluently. In the French texts, Holyband used a reformed spelling, though a conservative one.
He replaced a qu by k, for example, and used z for a voiced s in the middle of words. He also provided traditional spellings in the margin. His use of a small cross to indicate silent letters is, so far as 1 know, original, and could usefully have been preserved. Also, like most of its contemporaries, the Littleton contains a collection of Golden Sayings, Bon Mots, and so on. It is likely that the children would already know many of these sayings and they provided excellent material to learn by heart, Most of the textbook writers of the time use the same examples and Florio collected hundreds of them for use in his [talian courses.
After the sayings come the vocabulary lists and a lengthy reading text on dancing not such an odd subject in Elizabethan times as it might be today and, finally, the grammar and pronunciation rules. By the time he left England in the late s Holyband had completed most of his textbook scheme which, besides the two elementary courses we have discussed, included a study of French phonology called De Pronuntiatione Linguae Gallicae , a grammatical work called A Treatise for Declining of Verbs , and a dictionary which started out as A Treasury of the French Tongue and was later enlarged into A Dictionary French and English He had changed his name to suit his adopted country and he had married an English woman, his second wife Anne Smith.
He, and his many fellow refugee teachers working in St. The work of fob Florio c. Unlike Bellot and Holyband, Florio cannot really be called a refugee. He was also Italian tutor to the unfortunate Lady Jane Grey and therefore under suspicion after the accession of Mary I to the throne in After the failure of the Wyatt rebellion against Mary in the following year, the Florio family fled abroad to juin one of the exiled English Protestant communities in Strasbourg.
They later moved on to Switzerland. John Florio was a baby when the family Jef England and an adult of about twenty or so when he returned in the early s. There is some evidence that he attended Tiibingen University for a time but his movements during the period of exile are unclear, Having had an English mother he was a bilingual speaker of English and Italian but, though it is unlikely that he ever went to Italy, he is said to have preferred Italian.
Like Joseph Conrad he was a writer whose expert but unusual control of the English language allowed him to develop a prose style chat eventually enriched the literature of his second language. Florio, like his father, moved in circles close to power and therefore danger. It had all the right associations of Machiavellian politics and Renaissance art, and Florio made the most of them.
Frances A. Florio survived the Essex rebellion and went on to become Italian turor to the Royal Family itself in the next reign. When the Queen died in , Florio lost his job and spent the last years of his life in poverty with fees due to him from King James unpaid.
He died of the plague in at the age of Even the titles of his two principal double-manuals, First Fruits and Second Fruits, have a sense of style not found in the ordinary Schoolmasters and Treatises. Written in and respectively, they consist of Italian and English dialogues, some of them quite long and discursive, dealing with the topics of actistic and intellectual interest.
The later dialogues are written in an elaborate, almost euphuistic, style that would have appealed to the young noblemen who employed him. Florio was certainly a serious student of language as his collections of proverbs and his lexicographical work proves, but his vocation as a language teacher is more doubtful.
His textbooks were mostly a means of survival in the years after his return from Europe. Although he is best known as a teacher of Italian, Florio also claimed co be a teacher of English as a foreign language. Presumably his students were drawn from the small but not insignificant group of Italian refugees resident in London. Both his Fruits were advertised as double-manuals, and in the First he took his English-teaching role seriously enough to include an Htaliantanguage summacy of linguistic points, mainly concerned with English spelling and pronunciation.
There are no linguistic notes and he attaches a list of six thousand proverbs in Italian without any attempt at an English gloss, which he called rather fancifully If Giardino di Ricreatione Garden of Recreation. How serious he was in his criticisms is difficul: co teil, but he seems to have felt a sense of grievance at che hostility shown to him and other foreigners by the local population.
These attacks were resented and he paid dearly for them in an incident which we shall come to shortly. Second Fruits is more calculated to appeal to his new aristocratic patrons, the Earl of Southampton and his friends.
The puritanical streak of the earlier book is missing and there are many scenes depicting riding, tennis, card games, fencing, and so on. Ir is full of gossip and thyming couplets extolling the joys of love and the beauty of women. As old as you see him. He hath of late wedded a young wench of fifteen years old. Then he and she will make up the whole Bible together, 1 mean the new and old testament.
To an old cat, a young mouse, Old flesh makes good broth. The time had come for a counter-attack by the aggrieved locals. Eliot was a man of considerable literary talents in the style of Rabelais, a writer he did much to popularize in England, and he knew exactly what he was doing.
It is quite clear from the title-page onwards who his chief target was. Forsooth because it is not your own, but an Englishman's doing. Eliot knew how to keep up the vituperation for pages at a time and the book is a tour-de-force of insult. If Eliot's attack was effective, it also seems to have been destructive. Florio himself, the prime target, never wrote another language manual, thongh he may have been preparing a Third Fruits when he died in Textbooks by other refugee teachers also dried up, but many of them were beginning to drift back home from the mids onwards as the religious situation in France improved.
Significantly, however, Eliot's assumption that native textbook writers were being discrimi- nated against proved groundless and no English-born author came forward to fill the place of the maligned foreigners.
Perhaps part of the explanation lies in the fact that England by and large stood aside from close involvement in European affairs. The Queen succeeded in making herself and her language very unpopular in a series of studied insults. She refused to learn English herself and, to make matters worse, insisted on employing troupes of French actors who bored the court to tears with lengthy and unintelligible performances of French dramas. The royal French connection did nothing for the teaching of English as a foreign language, cither.
There was, however, one new author, a French merchant called George Mason who produced a small manual called Grammaire Angioise in It is a disappointing work that adds little to the achievements of the previous century, being both pedagogi- cally thin and Hnguistically unreliable. Ie contains comments on a rather oddly chosen selection of pronunciation problems followed by a lengthy set of grammatical paradigms and a small collection of dialogues at the end.
But there is one particular linguistic point that makes his grammar of interest to teachers of English as a foreign language. This is not a form thar occurs in Latin and hence does not fit easily into a Latin-based description of English. It is noteworthy that writers of pedagogical grammais who were cither foreigners themselves like Mason and later Miege, or who had a professional interest in teaching English to foreigners like Christopher Cooper , should consistent- ly have given this feature of English more emphasis than native-speaking writers who tended to treat the -ing form as a present participle separate from the verb to be.
Apart from Mason there was very little activity in the teaching of English to foreigners until a new generation of teachers and writers emerged from about the middle of the century onwards. Some, like Ben Jonson and John Wallis, were interested in writing scholarly grammars for private study while others, particularly after the arrival of another wave of refugees in the s, picked up and developed the traditions of Bellot and Holyband in teaching a practical command of the spoken language.
Notes 1 King Clare Byrne viii-ix. The main concern of the schools was the teaching of Latin and to some extent Greek, and until the private schools and academies put down strong roots in the early eighteenth century, the classical curriculum was dominant and unchallenged. Young children arrived at the grammar school at about the age of eight having, in theory at least, acquired basic literacy skills in the mother tongue, and were immediately force-fed with a dict of unrelenting Latin grammar rules and definitions.
Their grammar book was for the most part in Latin and there was no alternative but to sote-learn the text, dimly understood if at all, or risk a beating. Schoolroom violence is a constant theme throughout the literature of reform right up to the present century, and it was clearly very prevalent in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
The source of these infamous rules was what must be the best-selling language teaching textbook ever written, A Short Introduction of Grammar, generally credited to William Lily , the first headmaster of St. It continued without a serious rival until the middle of the eighteenth century and was still in occasional use in the nineteenth.
It also prompted many other publications, introductions, simplifications, teaching manuals, and so on. The book is in two parts, one much longer than the other.
The various reforming groups adopted different philosophies and theories of education at different times, but a common concern for text rather than precept or rule was evident among them all.
There were, broadly speaking, two schools of thought on the role and function of language studies in late sixteenth and early seventeenth- century education. It will not do to produce a hurricd and half-hearted gloss if the ultimate aim is to recreate the original Latin text accurately.
The method is intended to make the learner equally conscious of the structure and resources of his own language. Content is held constant while the resources of both languages are manipulated to express, as far as possible, a common array of meanings. In addition to Translatio and Imitatio, Ascham recommended four further procedures designed to exercise stylistic flexibility even more rigorously.
These were Paraphrasis reformulation , Epitome summarizing , Metapbrasis transforming a text from poetry to prose and vice versa and, at an advanced stage, Declamatio, or public eloquence. All these techniques are clearly intended to develop and refine a sensitivity to stylistic and textual variation which, as we have said already, applied as much to English as to Latin and Greek.
In expert hands, they add up to a sophisticated approach well-suited to the needs and aspirations of the aristocracy for whom Ascham was writing, However, there are also certain dangers, in particular an overly fussy concern for style at the expense of content.
Not a great deal is known about the life of Joseph Webbe c. Cominius had argued that grammars were either Jong and tedious or short and confusing, and useless either way. Thank you for interesting in our services. We are a non-profit group that run this website to share documents. It appears to be one of the unavoidable facts of life that the advocates of each reform movement as it develops will make exaggerated claims for the new approach, thus creating a mood of excessive optimism which carries within it the seeds of a negative reaction.
As a result, there is now a growing awareness that the bandwagon effect in L2 teaching should be recognized and guarded against. Thus, much recent work has emphasized the fact that language learners do not constitute a single homogeneous group, but manifest a great variety of individual needs and learning styles. Since, at the present time, there is no single method or theory which is capable of accounting for all aspects of language and language learning, numerous writers on methodology have begun to question whether there is any need to invest further time or effort in the search for decisive innovations.
Instead, it has been suggested, we should emphasize the responsibility of individual teachers to make informed, intelligent choices from among the large number of competing theories and methodologies which are already available.
One of the uses of history is that it provides a broader perspective and enables us to resist modern bandwagons. A sense of history is important in every profession since it helps us to evaluate new theories and to trace their relationship to old ones.
As historically aware language teachers, we can see how new trends develop as a logical reaction against earlier practices, At the same time, we gain strength by perceiving the basic continuity of thought which began at the time of the Renaissance and which has continued unbroken up to the present day.
Unfortunately, studies of language teaching which give due weight to historical trends and which are also well informed about current developments are few and far between. Howatt has performed a valuable service in providing us with a fascinating and scholarly introduction to the history of English language teaching in Europe which relates clearly to recent research in second language acquisition theory.How that was a good and bad thing for me is examined below, along with some ideas on who else this book might be of interest to and a summary of some of the most interesting information in it. Perhaps the greatest surprise for me was the fact that Section 2 Aspects of English Language Teaching sincewhich already takes me back further than almost anything I thought touched on my teaching today, takes up only pages of a page book- and that includes 20 pages of A Perspective on Recent Trends by H G Widdowson. With 50 pages being taken up with the Introduction, A Chronology of English Language Teaching, the bibliography and the index, that leaves pages for hidtory teaching of English as a second and foreign language beforea time that I had hardly knew our job existed in. Each section is further divided into chapters, with 21 chapters in total in the book. The first chapter Practical Language Teaching- The Early Years and the story of English Language Teaching starts with most people in England becoming monolingual in English, with French needing to be learnt as a foreign language for the first time, the earliest surviving book to if purpose dating from A lot of detail is given on these double-manuals, which seem to have been quite similar to modern phrasebooks but with additions such as bilingual prayers, including the first EFL teacher we know by name, A history of english language teaching howatt pdf free download Meurier although he probably mainly taught French. Lf second chapter Refugiate in a Strange Country takes up the teaching of Huguenot refugees in more detail, with an examination of the lives and works of three refugee teachers of English although again they spent more time teaching FrenchJacques Bellot, Claudius Holyband and John Florio. It includes the interesting idea that teachers of this period taught with translation because there was no analysis of English available that would have allowed them describe it all otherwise, perhaps an interesting parallel for the knowledge of the language and the use of translation all over the world for non-native a history of english language teaching howatt pdf free download non-specialist teachers now. Like the earlier a history of english language teaching howatt pdf free download, language textbooks at this time were based on full imaginary dialogues containing the a history of english language teaching howatt pdf free download language people needed day to day, whether that be commercial vocabulary or language for day to historg life. It seems proverbs and sayings were standard at that time something that seems to carry on every time someone somewhere with no training tries to design an English course including, bizarrely, a list of the mystical meanings of a history of english language teaching howatt pdf free download and flowers. Although some of the textbooks by these lanhuage authors continued to be used into the next century, no evidence is given here of an influence on the next generation of language teachers and textbooks- let alone on A history of english language teaching howatt pdf free download teaching, as all three taught and wrote about mainly if not only other languages. In fact, the author draws age of empires 3 asian dynasties download full version free interesting parallel with the Henry Sweet and, on the other side, the Direct Method teachers in the late 19th century. Unfortunately, there is again no evidence on Webbe having a direct influence on the next generation of teachers and textbook writers. In the next chapter the author explains the life story in some detail and professional life of Comenius. As should be obvious from the description above, a lot of the information given in this early part of the book is not directly related to the A history of english language teaching howatt pdf free download of English to Foreigners as was long a history of english language teaching howatt pdf free download official, non-PC, name for TESOL in the UK. Having a history of english language teaching howatt pdf free download that, most lamguage the rest of the information included was interesting, both as history and as a completely different for me way of looking at teaching. The author sometimes explains the relevance of such things to the history of ELT, but at other times seems to be following a personal interest that made me think that it was based on original research originally by author, something that in my experience is often the case with books that more or less stand alone in their subject area. If my and the city tv show free online was due to me being too focused on recent history or on classroom teaching rather than Applied Linguistics Teachnig am not sure, but as with the teaching of other kinds of history I often thought that it would be easier to understand, remember and see the importance of the information if it was more obviously tied closely to things I already knew. There were quite a gowatt examples of this, however, such as information on the person who Doctor Henry Higgins in My Fair Lady was based on, the background to the setting up of what became the CELTA, and the early history of the British Council and the much more central role it used to take in ELT. PDF | On Sep 1, , Ali Shehadeh published A HISTORY OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING (2nd ed) | Find, read and cite all the research you need Download full-text PDF free conversation portion of the interviews and language tests+A valuable feature of In his introduction,Howatt states that. Publisher: Oxford University Press Authors: A P R Howatt with H G Widdowson Despite the fact that I could obviously judge the topic of the book from the title, this. A.P.R. Howatt a History of English Language Teaching - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online for free. this is a. A History of English Language Teaching Howatt A.P.R., Oxford University Press, Article Information, PDF download for A History of English Language Teaching Howatt A.P.R., Oxford University Press,, Open Free first page. Gatenby, E.V. 'Conditions for Success in Language Learning' () as reprinted in E.L.T. A History of English Language Teaching. Home · A History of English Language Teaching Author: A.P.R. Howatt copyright / DMCA form · DOWNLOAD PDF. The history of second language teaching provides many examples of the A. P. R. Howatt has performed a valuable service in providing us with a fascinating. Oxford University Press, p. This is a history of the teaching of English to speakers of other languages from the Renaissance to the. It also presents the recent research on English language teaching methods and the debates that move towards the post-method pedagogy in second language. Oxford Applied Linguistics: A History of English Language Teaching [Howatt, A.P.R., Get your Kindle here, or download a FREE Kindle Reading App. ISBN The English language, like all languages, traces its ultimate ancestry to a time predating the written word. Over the centuries, the English language has been influenced by a number of other languages. Asish Mazumder , This is a history of the teaching of English to speakers of other languages from the Renaissance to the present day. Skip to content. His many books, articles, and lectures have beenseminal in establishing both the field of applied linguistics and its mode of enquiry. Why not share! Free ebooks since Howatt, H. Howatt, H. Howatt has retired as Senior Lecturer in Applied Linguistics at the University of Edinburgh, of which he is a graduate. Got it! Goodreads helps you keep track of books you want to read. This is a history of the teaching of English to speakers of other languages from the Renaissance to the present day.