a girl like her full movie free no sign up March L5, on the subject of proposed ameliorations of slave conditions in the West Indies: "To turn him [the slave] loose in the manhood of his physical strength, in the maturity of his physical passion, but in the infancy of his uninstructed reasory would be to raise up a creature resembling the splendid fiction of a recent romance" in Malchow ">
If you own the copyright to this book and it is wrongfully on our website, we offer a simple DMCA procedure to remove your content from our site. Start by pressing the button below! Tan traces the lives of four Chinese women immigrants starting in, when they form their mah-jongg club and swap stories of life in China; these mothers'vignettes alternate with their daughters' stories. Frazier in , and W. Postmodernism and Popular Culture 1.
Postmodernism Postmodernism, like poststructuralism and deconstruction, is a critique of the aesthetics of the preceding age, but besides mere critique, postmodernism celebrates the very act of dismembering tradition. Postmodernism questions everything rationalist European philosophy held to be true, arguing that it is all contingent and that most cultural constructions have served the function of empowering members of a dominant social group at the expense of "others.
Modernist literature rejected the Victorian aesthetic of prescriptive morality famously argued by Henry James in "The Art of Fiction" and, using new techniques drawn from psychology, experimented with point of view, time, space, and stream-of-consciousness writing. Major figures of "high modernism" who radically redefined poetry and fiction included Virginia Woolf, james foyce, Ezra Pound, T.
Modernism typically displayed an emphasis on impressionism and subjectivity, on how subjectivity takes place, rather than on what is perceived.
Often narratives were sparse, even minimal, as in Stevens's poetry. Modernist novels sought to be metafictive, or self-referential about their status as texts, their production as art, and their reception. But while modernism presented a fragmented view of human history as in Eliot's The Waste Land , this fragmentation was seen as tragic. Despite their pessimism, modernist works still hope, following Matthew Arnold a generation before, that art may be able to provide the unity, coherence, and meaning that has been lost in most of modern life, as church and nation have failed to do.
One can locate this hope, faint as it sometimes is, in such memorable passages as the Molly Bloom section that closes ]oyce's Ulysses In contrast, postmodernism not only does not mourn the loss of meaning, but celebrates the activity of fragmentation.
Whereas modernism still seeks a rational meaning in a work of art, postmodemism explores the provisionality and irrationality of art. Frederic Jameson sees artistic movements like modernism and postmodernism as cultural formations that accompany particular stages of capitalism and are to some extent constructed by it. Realism was the predominant style within eighteenth- and nineteenth-century market capitalism, with its new technologies such as the stream engine that transformed everyday life.
From the late nineteenth century through World War II, modernism ruled the arts within monopoly capitalism, associated with electricity and internal combustion. The third phase is dominated by global consumer capitalism, the emphasis placed on advertising and selling goods, now called the InformationAge.
Societies must have order. Jean-FranEois Lyotard argues that stability is maintained through "grand narratives" or "master narratives," stories a culture tells itself about its practices and beliefs in order to keep going. A grand narrative in American culture might be the story that democracy is the most enlightened or rational form of government, and that democracy will lead to universal human happiness.
Postmodernism prefers "mini-narratives" of local events. Think for example of video games or. Virtual reality games add another dimension to the artificiality of postmodern life.
Perhaps postmodernism is best compared to the emergence of computer technology. In the future, anything not digitizable may cease to be knowledge. For Baudrillard, postmodernism marks a culture composed "of disparate fragmentary experiences and images that constantly bombard the individual in music, video, television, advertising and other forms of electronic media. The speed and ease of reproduction of these images mean that they exist only as image, devoid of depth, coherence, or originality" in Childers and Hentzi Postmodernism thus reflects both the energy and diversity of contemporary life as well as its frequent lack of coherence and depth.
The lines between reality and artifice can become so blurred that reality TV is now hard to distinguish from reality-and from television entertainment. Popular Culture There was a time before the s when popular culture was not studied by academics-when it was, well, just popular culture. But within American Studies programs at first and then later in many disciplines, including semiotics, rhetoric, literary criticism, film studies, anthropology, history, women's studies, ethnic studies, and psychoanalytic approaches, critics examine such cultural media as pulp fiction, comic books, television, film, advertising, popular music, and computer cyberculture.
They assess how such factors as ethnicity, race, gender, class, age, region, and sexuality are shaped by and reshaped in popular culture.
There are four main types of popular culture analyses: production analysis, textual analysis, audience analysis, and historical analysis. These analyses seek to get beneath the surface denotative meanings and examine more implicit connotative social meanings.
These approaches view culture as a narrative or story-telling process in which particular texts or cultural artifacts i. A key here is how texts create subject positions or identities for those who use them. Production analysis asks the following kinds of questions: Who owns the media?
Who creates texts and why? Under what constraints? How democratic or elitist is the production of popular culture? What about works written only for money?
Textuql analysis examines how specific works of popular culture create meanings. Audience analysis asks how different groups of popular culture consumers, or users, make similar or different sense of the same texts.
Historical analysis investigates how these other three dimensions change over time. As we will demonstrate in our discussion of Frankenstein, sometimes popular culture can so overtake and repackage a literary work that it is impossible to read the original text without reference to the many layers of popular culture that have developed around it.
As we will also point out, the popular culture reconstructions of a work llke Frankenstein can also open it to unforeseen new interpretations.
Postcolonial Studies Postcolonialism refers to a historical phase undergone by Third World countries after the decline of colonialism: for example, when countries in Asia, Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean separated from the European empires and were left to rebuild themselves. Many Third World writers focus on both colonialism and the changes created in a postcolonial culture. Among the many challenges facing postcolonial writers are the attempts both to resurrect their culture and to combat the preconceptions about their culture.
At first glance postcolonial studies would seem to be a matter of history and political science, rather than literary criticism. However, we must remember that English, as in "English Department" or "English Literature," has been since the age of the British Empire a global language it is today, for example, almost exclusively the language of the internet.
Britain seemed to foster in its political institutions as well as in literature universal ideals for proper living, while at the same time perpetuating the violent enslavement of Africans and other imperialist cruelties around the world, causing untold misery. Postcolonial literary theorists study the English language within this politicized context, especially those writings that developed at the colonial"front," such as works by Rudyard Kipling, E.
Forster, jean Rhys, or Jamaica Kincaid. Earlier figures such as Shakespeare's Caliban are re-read today in their New World contexts. Said's concept of orientalism was an important touchstone to postcolonial studies, as he described the stereotypical discourse about the East as constructed by the West.
Said sharply critiques the Western image of the Oriental as "irrational, depraved fallen , child-like,' differerrt,"' which has allowed the West to define itself as "rational, virtuous, maturer'normal"' Frantz Fanon, a French Caribbean Marxist, drew upon his own horrific experiences in French Algeria to deconstruct emerging national regimes that are based on inheritances from the imperial powers, warning that class, not race, is a greater factor in worldwide oppression, and that if new nations are built in the molds of their former oppressors, then they will perpetuate the bourgeois inequalities from the past.
His book The Wretched of the Earth has been an important inspiration for postcolonial cultural critics and literary critics who seek to understand the decolonizing project of Third World writers, especially those interested in African and African American texts.
Homi K. Bhabha's postcolonial theory involves analysis of nationality, ethnicity, and politics with poststructuralist ideas of identity and indeterminacy, defining postcolonial identities as shifting, hybrid constructions. Bhabha critiques the presumed dichotomies between center and periphery, colonized and colonizer, self and other, borrowing from deconstruction the argument that these are false binaries. Perhaps his most important contribution has been to stress that colonialism is not a one-way street, that because it involves an interaction between colonizer and colonized, the colonizer is as much affected by its systems as the colonized.
The old distinction between "industrialized" and "developing" nations does not hold true today, when so many industrial jobs have been moved overseas from countries like the United States to countries like India and the Philippines.
Postcolonial critics accordingly study diasporic texts outside the usual Western genres, especially productions by aboriginal authors, marginalized ethnicities, immigrants, and refugees. Postcolonial literatures from emerging nations by such writers as Chinua Achebe and Salman Rushdie are read alongside European responses to colonialism by writers such as George Orwell and Albert Camus. We can see some powerful conflicts arising from the colonial past in Rushdie's Midnight's Children 1, , for example, which deconstructs from a postcolonial viewpoint the history of modern India.
Among the most important figures in postcolonial feminism is Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, who examines the effects of political independence upon "subaltern" or subproletarian women in the Third World. Spivak's subaltern studies reveal how female subjects are silenced by the dialogue between the male-dominated West and the male-dominated East, offering little hope for the subaltern woman's voice to rise up amidst the global social institutions that oppress her.
Two Characters in Hamlet: Marginalization with a Vengeance In several instances earlier in this chapter we noted the cultural and new historical emphases on power relationships. For example, we noted that cultural critics assume "oppositional" roles in terms of power structures, wherever they might be found. Veeser, we pointed out, credited the new historicists with dealing with "questions of politics, power, indeed on all.
And of course there are the large emphases on power in the matter of fonathan Swift's Laputa, as previously noted. Let us now approach Shakespeare's Hamlet with a view to seeing power in its cultural context.
Shortly after the play within the play, Claudius is talking privately with Rosencranttz and Guildenstern, Hamlet's fellow students from Wittenberg III. In response to Claudius's plan to send Hamlet to England, Rosencrantz delivers a speech that-if read out of context-is both an excellent set of metaphors almost in the shape of a sonnet and a summation of the Elizabethan concept of the role and power of kingship: The singular and peculiar life is bound With all the strength and armor of the mind To keep itselfrom noyance, but much more That spirit upon whose weal depends and rests The lives of many.
The cease of majesty Dies not alone, but like a gulf doth draw What's near it with it. Never alone Did the King sigh but with a general troun. But how many readers and viewers of the play would rank this passage among the best-known lines of the play-with Hamlet's soliloquies, for instance, or with the king's effort to pray, or even with the aphorisms addressed by Polonius to his son Laertes?
We venture to say that the passage, intrinsically good if one looks at it alone, is simply not well known. Attention to the context and to the speaker gives the answer. Guildenstern had just agreed that he and Rosencrantz would do the king's bidding. Both speeches are wholly in character, for Rosencrarttz and Cuildenstern are among the jellyfish of Shakespeare's characters.
Easy it is to forget which of the two speaks which lines-indeed easy it is to forget most of their lines altogether. The two are distinctly plot-driven: empty of personality, sycophantic in a sniveling waf, eager to curry favor with power even if it means spying on their erstwhile friend. Weakly they admit, without much skill at denial, that they "were sent for" II. Even less successfully they try to play on Hamlet's metaphorical"pipe," to know his "stops," when they are forced to admit that they could not even handle the literal musical instrument that Hamlet shows them III.
Still later these nonentities meet their destined "non-beingness," as it were, when Hamlet, who can play the pipe so much more efficiently, substitutes their names in the death warrant intended for him. If ever we wished to study two characters who are marginalized, then let us look upon Rosencrantz and Guildenstern. The meanings of their names hardly match what seems to be the essence of their characters.
Murray J. Levith, for example, has written that "Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are from the Dutch-German: literally, 'garland of roses' and 'golden star. Their jingling gives them a lightness, and blurs the individuality of the characters they label" Lightness to be sure. Harley Granville-Barker once wrote in an offhand way of the reaction these two roles call up for actors. Commenting on Solanio and Salarino fuorn The Merchant of Venice, he noted that their roles are "cursed by actors as the two worst bores in the whole Shakespearean canon; not excepting, even those other twin brethren in nonentity, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern" Obvious too is the fact that the two would not fit the social level or have the level of influence of those whom Harold Jenkins reports as historical persons bearing these names: "These splendidly resounding names, by contrast with the unlocalized classical ones, are evidently chosen as particularly Danish.
Both were common among the most influential Danish families, and they are often found cites various. No, these details do not seem to fit the personalities and general vacuity of Shakespeare's two incompetents. So let us look elsewhere for what these two characters tell us. Let us review what they do, and what is done to them.
Simply, they have been students at Wittenberg. They return to Denmark, apparently at the direct request of Claudius II. They try to pry from Hamlet some of his inner thoughts, especially of ambition and frustration about the crowrl ILii.
Hamlet foils them. They crumble before his own questioning. As noted above, Claudius later sends them on an embassy with Hamlet, carrying a letter to the King of England that would have Hamlet summarily executed. Though they may not have known the contents of that "grandcommission," Hamlet's suspicion of them is enough for him to contemplate their future-and to "trust them as adders fanged": They must sweep my way, And marshal me to knavery.
Let it work, For 'tis the sporto have the engineer Hoist with his own petard. And 't shall go hard But I will delve one yard below their mines And blow them to the moon: Oh, 'tis most sweet When in one line two crafts directly meet.
When Horatio responds laconically with "So Guildenstern and Rosencrantz go to't," Hamlet is unmoved: Why, man, they did make love to this employment. They are not near my conscience. Their defeat Does by their own insinuation grow. For one thing, Hamlet may well see himself as righting the moral order, not as a murderer, and much has been said on that matter. But let us take note of another dimension: the implications for power. Clearly Hamlet makes reference in the lines just noted to the "mighty opposites" represented by himself and Claudius.
Clearly, too, the ones of "baser nature" who "[made] love to this employment" do not matter much in this struggle between powerful antagonists. He, in effect, emphasizes on personal awareness of the world and development or the person's external relationship with his environment. His theory is widely and highly considered in "Historical- Biographical Approach" in literary criticism. This approach sees a literary work chiefly as a reflection of its author's life and times or the life and times of the characters in the work.
This, actually, is the author's experiences of the world. This theory is also close to "Post- Modernism Approach" in literary criticism in such a way that Post- Modernists believe all definitions and depictions of truth are simply creations of human minds and his self- conscious within the work of art and his self- conscious and the creation of mind are concerned to his experience of the world and his environment. Bolles's contribution to literary criticism in "Rhetorical Criticism" is clear.
It focuses on the strategies, devices, and techniques author use to elicit a particular reaction or interpretation of a text. Bolles also underlines the item, Choices the seer use for gaining a new meaning. Bolles was a founder of the "Movement" in animal and human being's cognition. He continued that learning and behavior are organized according to functional systems adapted to solving natural problems.
Bolles in his article phenomenon and particularly if you want to gain a new understanding of it". It would decode a new meaning by seeing a new code within a text. So it is, in effect, what Robert C. Bolles meant as "to observe a new phenomenon is to gain a new understanding of it". When applied to literature, this principle becomes revolutionary. They believe that a study of the system of rules that govern literary interpretation becomes the critic's primary task.
Conclusion Having surveyed the psychological theories and literary criticism, we come to the point that these are interwoven and abundantly clear. Psychological theories said in this paper by the eminent psychologists are very powerful for understanding the literary texts.
They also enable us to have a meaningful comprehension of human being's development and the world. The better that people come through the literary texts, the better they will tend to deal with what psychological theories are reflected in a genre of literature. References Andersen, D. Beyond rumor and reductionism: A textual dialogue with Erik H. The Psychohistory review, 22 1 , Bressler, C. Open Library. Please choose whether or not you want other users to be able to see on your profile that this library is a favorite of yours.