Learn more I agree. Skip to content. Search for books, journals or webpages All Pages Books Journals. However, due to transit disruptions in some geographies, deliveries may be delayed. View on ScienceDirect. Hardcover ISBN: Imprint: Academic Press. Published Date: 29th October Page Count: Flexible - Read on multiple operating systems and devices. Easily read eBooks on smart phones, computers, or any eBook readers, including Kindle. In parallel with the widespread deployment and evolution of 2G mobile-communication systems during the s, substantial efforts were put into 3G research activities worldwide.
Standardization of WCDMA continued in parallel in several standards groups until the end of , when the Third Generation Partnership Project 3GPP was formed by standards-developing organizations from all regions of the world.
This solved the problem of trying to maintain parallel development of aligned specifications in multiple regions. At this time, when the standardization bodies were ready to put the details into the 3GPP specifications, work on 3G mobile systems had already been ongoing for some time in the international arena within the ITU-R.
That work was influenced by and also provided a broader international framework for the standardization work in 3GPP. The recommendation contains a family of radio interfaces, all included on an equal basis. The family of six terrestrial radio interfaces is illustrated in Figure 1.
In addition, there are several IMT satellite radio interfaces defined, not illustrated in Figure 1. For each radio interface, M. The actual specifications are maintained by the individual SDOs and M. The term IMT-Advanced is used for systems that include new radio interfaces supporting the new capabilities of systems beyond IMT, as demonstrated with the van diagram in Figure 1.
Figure 1. ITU-R first concluded studies for IMT-Advanced of services and technologies, market forecasts, principles for standardization, estimation of spectrum needs, and identification of candidate frequency bands . Evaluation criteria were agreed, where proposed technologies were to be evaluated according to a set of minimum technical requirements.
All ITU members and other organizations were then invited to the process through a circular letter  in March After submission of six candidate technologies in , an evaluation was performed in cooperation with external bodies such as standards-developing organizations, industry forums, and national groups.
The target of the process was always harmonization of the candidates through consensus building. RSPEC]  and will be completed during As for the corresponding IMT specification, it will contain an overview of each radio interface, followed by a list of references to the detailed specifications.
The spectrum work has involved sharing studies between IMT and other technologies in those bands. Adequate spectrum availability and globally harmonized spectrum are identified as essential for IMT-Advanced. The applicability of these new bands varies on a regional and national basis. The recommendation outlines the regional variations in how the bands are implemented and also identifies which parts of the spectrum are paired and which are unpaired. For the paired spectrum, the bands for uplink mobile transmit and downlink base-station transmit are identified for Frequency-Division Duplex FDD operation.
The evolution of 3G systems into 4G is driven by the creation and development of new services for mobile devices, and is enabled by advancement of the technology available for mobile systems.
There has also been an evolution of the environment in which mobile systems are deployed and operated, in terms of competition between mobile operators, challenges from other mobile technologies, and new regulation of spectrum use and market aspects of mobile systems.
The rapid evolution of the technology used in telecommunication systems, consumer electronics, and specifically mobile devices has been remarkable in the last 20 years. High-resolution color displays and megapixel camera sensors are also coming into all types of mobile devices. Combined with a high-speed internet backbone often based on optical fiber networks, we see that a range of technology enablers are in place to go hand-in-hand with advancement in mobile communications technology such as LTE.
The rapid increase in use of the internet to provide all kinds of services since the s started at the same time as 2G and 3G mobile systems came into widespread use.
The natural next step was that those internet-based services also moved to the mobile devices, creating what is today know as mobile broadband. Being able to support the same Internet Protocol IP -based services in a mobile device that people use at home with a fixed broadband connection is a major challenge and a prime driver for the evolution of LTE. A few services were already supported by the evolved 2. Published Date: 21st March Page Count: Flexible - Read on multiple operating systems and devices.
Easily read eBooks on smart phones, computers, or any eBook readers, including Kindle. Institutional Subscription. Free Shipping Free global shipping No minimum order. Wireless and RF communications, R and D engineers and graduate students. Preface Acknowledgements Abbreviations and Acronyms Chapter 1.